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  1. 1. From the Model Course to PE as we know it. <ul><li>To know the key features/characteristics of PE throughout the different stages of its development. </li></ul><ul><li>To know who/what was responsible for its development. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Background. (pg 57) <ul><li>In 1866 the Army rejected around 380 out of every 1000 recruits on physical health grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Board Schools ( state not boarding ) were established after 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>School became compulsory for children between ages of five and ten. By 1899 school leaving age was 12 years old. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Board Schools (1870-1901) <ul><li>Restricted space. </li></ul><ul><li>Small playground, no playing field. </li></ul><ul><li>Key objectives of drill, fitness,discipline, </li></ul><ul><li>Taught by Army NCO’s in 1870’s . </li></ul><ul><li>Taught by teachers in1890’s </li></ul><ul><li>Very authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Key influences: european gymnastics teachers: Guts Muths etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1902 The Model Course. <ul><li>Drill imposed as a result of Britain’s poor performance in the Boer War. </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed by Colonel Fox. </li></ul><ul><li>Drill also trained the children how to stand to attention and march like soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Girls and boys instructed together </li></ul><ul><li>Children treated as soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers could work in a small space </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cont. <ul><li>In summary Drill aimed to; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Improve fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Training in the use of a gun </li></ul>
  6. 6. Massed drill in the school yard 1902
  7. 7. Early Syllabus of Physical Training (PT). 1904 + 1909 <ul><li>Revision of 1902 model course. </li></ul><ul><li>Still similar but a kinder approach adopted by teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>School medical service established in board of education in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr George Newman was the key influence as chief medical officer. </li></ul><ul><li>He was interested in health and therapeutic effects of exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>A compromise between military drill and Swedish exercises . </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1919 Syllabus <ul><li>Followed on from the 1914-18 war </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus was progressive, more child centred </li></ul><ul><li>Dr George Newman still influential, he stressed the benefit of recreational activities to rehabilitate injured soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment and play for under 7’s simple games introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic work for over 7’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it different? </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1919 Syllabus <ul><li>About half the lessons were now on general activity exercises, movement including small games and dancing. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers had more freedom, in general things were becoming less formal. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fisher Education act 1918 promoted holiday, school camps and school playing fields. Why? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Task. <ul><li>Read/use pages 57-60 </li></ul><ul><li>Using your drawing skills and imagination. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a time line showing the features of each style of PE </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1930’s <ul><li>A time of industrial depression , many working class men were unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s were something of a watershed between the syllabus used in the past and the PE of the future </li></ul><ul><li>1933 Syllabus identified the need for different activities for different groups </li></ul><ul><li>One section for under 11’s one for over 11’s </li></ul><ul><li>How does this relate to today’s education? </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1930’s <ul><li>1933 the last syllabus produced by Dr George Newman </li></ul><ul><li>1933, emphasis on skill and posture . A detailed respected syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Newman stated that good nourishment, hygiene and physical training was required for normal healthy development. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The 1933 syllabus- playground games.
  14. 14. 1933 Syllabus <ul><li>Athletics, gym and games skills were a feature along with group work </li></ul><ul><li>Group work was a central part of the lessons </li></ul><ul><li>5x20 minute lessons recommended </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ovaltine advert for 1933 syllabus.
  16. 16. Moving and Growing 1952 <ul><li>1944 Act required schools to provide playing fields. </li></ul><ul><li>School leaving age increased to 15 </li></ul><ul><li>A problem solving approach was introduced into PE </li></ul><ul><li>Educational dance , influenced a more creative approach </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1950’s apparatus lesson in the playground.
  18. 18. Movement and Growing <ul><li>An experiment in Halifax with disabled children encouraged a problem solving approach to PE </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons became more enjoyable,increased involvement, teachers provided guidance rather than direction </li></ul><ul><li>Much apparatus work , bars, boxes, ropes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Children gained much individual satisfaction </li></ul>
  19. 21. Task. <ul><li>Complete the time line from the previous week. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Lesson 3. <ul><li>Within a group of 6 act out the different stages of the development of PE. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about bringing your time line to life!! </li></ul>
  21. 23. Exam questions: <ul><li>Explain why state elementary school children in 1902 did not play Cricket or other team games, as part of their school Physical training programme. [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Answers: </li></ul>
  22. 24. In the the 1950’s Physical Education in State Elementary schools changed, following the publication of Moving and growing (1952) and the planning programme (1954). <ul><li>Identify the objectives of the 1950’s approach. Describe how a lesson based on the 1950’s syllabus would have been taught. [5]. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>5 marks – 3 max from either section. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>1. (physical) learn physical skills/body management/ gymnastics/ dance/ games/ swimming skills. </li></ul><ul><li>2. (social) learn social skills/ co-operation/ working together. </li></ul><ul><li>3. (cognitive) Learn cognitive skills. </li></ul><ul><li>4. (enjoyment) Enjoyment/ satisfaction/ feeling of achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>5. (involvement) to get everyone involved/taking part. </li></ul><ul><li>6. (variety) to give a varied programme/ varied lessons. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Teaching methods. <ul><li>7. (child centred) child centred approach/ emphasis on what children could do rather than what they could not do/ starting from their own experience. </li></ul><ul><li>8. (problem solving) problem solving/ discovery/ exploration/ creating sequences/ individual interpretation of tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>9. (apparatus) apparatus used/ gymnastic equipment/ ropes, bars, boxes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>10. (decentralised) decentralised/ teacher as educator rather than instructor/ not everyone doing the same thing at the same time. </li></ul>
  24. 26. That’s it!! <ul><li>Good luck, revise hard. </li></ul>Do this…. And not be one of these.