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  1. 1. Anxiety
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Anxiety is a emotional state associated with fear or worry. </li></ul><ul><li>It is closely linked with arousal since anxiety will cause a person to become aroused. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Somatic and Cognitive Anxiety <ul><li>These are the physiological and psychological affects of anxiety on a person. </li></ul><ul><li>The somatic anxiety tends to decrease after the competition has begun. </li></ul><ul><li>The level of anxiety is related to the perception of ability to cope in the situation faced. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Somatic Anxiety <ul><li>This is the Physiological affects of anxiety such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased breathing rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive muscular tension </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pulse rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased blood pressure </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive Anxiety <ul><li>This is the psychological affects of anxiety such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual field narrowing – This leads to lack of awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Self-centred thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Negative thoughts about their ability to perform well – Talking themselves out of the performance ahead. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to make decisions – Means the decision making process is lengthened as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression levels are raised </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trait and State Anxiety <ul><li>An athlete who has a high level of trait anxiety is likely to develop high state anxiety in a competitive situation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trait Anxiety <ul><li>This is inbuilt, part of the personality, it is innate. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives a person a tendency to be fearful of unfamiliar situations </li></ul><ul><li>A tendency to see a competitive situation as a threat. And also a tendency to respond to competitive situations with apprehension </li></ul><ul><li>The implications of high trait anxiety leave a performer likely to produce high levels of state anxiety and the demands of competitive sport would be stressful. </li></ul>
  8. 8. State Anxiety <ul><li>It is an emotional response to certain situations, leaving a performer feeling nervous and apprehensive which is only temporary. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the nervousness an athlete feels at the moment before a competition. </li></ul><ul><li>The implications of high state anxiety is that it can even affect people with low trait anxiety. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factors which can affect anxiety levels once competition begins <ul><li>Evaluation of others during a competition i.e. the crowd, the opposition, the coach. </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction with others i.e. the opposition are aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>An injury during competition </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the environment – weather/ pitch conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Success or failure during competition – the score or the time left of the match </li></ul><ul><li>Type of task. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Measuring anxiety <ul><li>There are three main methods of measuring anxiety : </li></ul><ul><li>One by observing the performer </li></ul><ul><li>By a questionnaire of how they’re feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Finally physiological measures such as heart rate monitors and skin conductivity to measure sweating. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methods to reduce Anxiety <ul><li>Somatic stress management – Breathing techniques, massage </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive stress management – Positive thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the importance of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Mental rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Selective attention/ focusing </li></ul>