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  1. 1. Edexcel ExaminationsAS Level Sport and Physical Education AS Module Unit 1Participation in Sport and Recreation Section 1.1 Healthy and Active Lifestyles Part 2: Healthy Lifestyle - Health, Fitness and Exercise- Nutrition and Weight Management 1
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  4. 4. Physical exertion of the body, done to achieve agood level of health & fitness - both mentally &physically. Exercise can vary from light (e.g. steadywalk) to intense (e.g. vigorous cycling or running).A complete state of physical and mental well-being andnot merely the absence of disease or infirmityThe ability to meet the demands of the environmentwithout undue fatigue. 4
  5. 5. Is it possible to be fit without being healthy??Or healthy without being fit?? 5
  6. 6. physical tasks withoutwell-being fatigue WHAT IS FITNESS? successful highly adaptation to specific stressors 6
  7. 7. respiratory cardiovascular Skeletal EXERCISE IMPROVES WELL-BEINGneuromuscular psychological body composition 7
  8. 8. CARDIOVASCULAR exercise slows down degenerative diseases (CHD) exercise increases High Density Lipoproteins HDL and decreases Low Density Lipoproteins LDL (LDL are responsible for depositing cholesterol and narrowing lumen of artery), hence BP stable thus preventing hypertensionRESPIRATORY exercise slows down decline in VO2max and hence aerobic capacity remains higher than it otherwise would be hence the capability for long duration low intensity work remains higher 8
  9. 9.  BODY COMPOSITION exercise reduces obesity by burning off excess fat during and after activity when MR remains elevated, hence body mass loss cardiac workload (hence risk of CHD) less with lower body mass capability to move around (walk / run / climb) therefore better with lower body mass exercise relieves symptoms of osteoarthritis 9
  10. 10.  Skeletal Exercise stimulates the thickening and improved elasticity of cartilage Exercise reduces risk of osteoporosis by increasing bone density due to increased deposition of calcium. 10
  11. 11. • Neuromuscular•Exercise sustains strength and co-ordination levels•Exercise enhances strength and flexibility of tendons and ligaments –allowing a fuller range of motion at a joint. 11
  12. 12. •PSYCHOLOGICAL•immediately following activity a person experiences a feeling of wellbeing, reduction in anxiety•long term increase in work performance / ability to concentrate,•hence a more positive attitude to work, increased motivation•improved self-esteem and self-efficacy / confidence•benefits of social interaction 12
  13. 13.  Reduction in body fat Increased resting metabolic rate Increased proportion of muscle mass Reduced rates of mortality Reduced risk of CHD, obesity, osteoporosis Help type II diabetes management. 13
  14. 14.  ENERGY METABOLISM Energy provides the means for any activity including muscle movements. total intake of food sufficient to supply enough energy to:  keep cells alive  keep systems working  meet demands of life BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR) this is the least rate of energy usage needed to carry out basic body functions measured after lying down after 8 hours sleep / 12 hours fasting TOTAL METABOLIC RATE sum of BMR + energy required for all daily activities total average energy usage for 18 year olds in the USA is: females: 8,000 kj per day males 12,000 kJ per day. 14
  15. 15.  Exercise increases metabolic rate. Therefore using up energy at a greater rate then normal and using the bodies stored resources (fat). Metabolic rate remains high for some time after exercise – meaning that energy from adipose tissue and recently eaten food will be used depending on how intense the exercise was! Energy intake < energy output = sure way to combat obesity. 15
  16. 16. OSTEOPOROSIS Age related condition Made worse by inactivity Reduction of bone mass Due to reabsorption of minerals that form part of the bone structure. This makes bones more porous, brittle and more likely to break. Can also be linked with hormonal changes in post menopausal females Weight bearing activities would help 16
  17. 17. type II diabetes is an age-related condition in which there is an imbalance of blood sugar required for daily activities caused by insulin resistance• this is linked to obesity, coronary artery disease, stroke and hypertension• if exercise is continued through middle-age and old-age (from 40 onwards), blood glucose is broken down and hence blood sugar is reduced and the chances of type 2 diabetes reduced 17
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  19. 19. contains proportions of:  carbohydrates, fats and proteins  minerals, vitamins, water and roughage (fibre) needed to maintain good health 19
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  21. 21.  Main energy source Absorbed as glucose into the smallintestine Excess stored as muscle and liver glycogen and as fat. 60% in a balanced diet. 21
  22. 22.  Secondary energy supply Long duration and low intensity exercise. Insulation Soluble and Insoluble fats 20-25% of a balanced diet. 22
  23. 23.  Required for growth and repair Last resort for energy supply Made from amino acids – essential and non essential. 10-15% of a balanced diet. 23
  24. 24.  Organic substances needed for all bodily functions. Regulate metabolism and facilitate energy release. Fat soluble and water soluble vitamins Small amounts are essential 24
  25. 25.  Calcium provides strong structure of bones and teeth. Iron is needed for red blood cell production Other minerals – magnesium, sodium, potassium. 25
  26. 26.  Essential for healthy bowel functions. No calories, vitamins or minerals in fibre and it is not digested. Fruit, vegetables, plant foods, beans and oats. 26
  27. 27.  Major component of the body Involved in almost every bodily function Termoregulation Transport around body. 27
  28. 28. fat, butter, margarine, fats cooking oil milk, cheese, protein and yoghurt, eggs, red some fat meat, chicken, fish vegetables fibre, vitamins and fruit - 5 minerals per daycarbohydrate cereal, pasta, bread, biscuits,and fibre, the bulk cake,of food eaten Foods in the lower part of the pyramid should form the main part of a balanced diet, while those at the top should be eaten in smaller quantities. 28
  29. 29.  cholesterol is a substance produced from fatty foods particularly from a diet high in saturated fat if this is not removed by the digestive process, it can be deposited in arteries causing them to be narrower this is a form of atherosclerosis 29
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  31. 31. EXERCISE AND HIGH CHOLESTEROL exercise increases High Density Lipoproteins HDL and decreases Low Density Lipoproteins LDL (LDL are responsible for depositing cholesterol and narrowing lumen of artery), hence blood pressure (BP) becomes stable thus preventing hypertension 31
  32. 32. Activity Daily energy intake (KJ) Daily energy intake (KJ) Female MalesTour de France 25,000Triathlon 20,000Rowing 12,600 14,700Swimming 8,400 15,500Hockey 9,200 13,400Gymnastics 6,000Body Building 5,900 14,500 Average female intake – 2,000 Average male intake – 2,500 32
  33. 33. BALANCED DIET• a balanced diet from a regular food intake will provide the nutrient requirements for all sportspeopleThe duration and intensity of the activity will determine the dietary requirements for the athlete to perform at his/her best ability. 33
  34. 34. CHO REQUIREMENT• Glycogen is the most important energy source for any type of exercise.• Endurance events (90 mins +) will need a higher CHO diet to keep muscle glycogen levels as high as possible.• CHO loading could be used.• A high CHO diet significantly improves performance• immediate post-exercise CHO supplements, and high glycemic index (GI) foods such as bananas and raisins• will start reloading depleted muscle glycogen stores. 34
  35. 35.  carbo-loading can assist endurance performance in events lasting longer than 90 minutes by increasing muscle glycogen stores above normal levels Eating more CHO to keep muscle glycogen levels higher for longer during exercise. 35
  36. 36.  fat intake should be restricted for both power and endurance athletes except for power events such as sumo wrestling WHY??? 36
  37. 37. ENDURANCE ATHLETES• the recommended protein intake is 1.2 - 1.4 grams per kilogram of body mass per daySTRENGTH AND POWER ATHLETES• need additional protein• 1.4 - 1.8 grams per kilogram of body mass per day• this need for extra protein is because after heavy resistance training the rate of protein breakdown and resynthesis is greater• because of muscle hypertrophy 37
  38. 38. VITAMINS AND MINERALS• a regular intake of vitamins and minerals is required for all performers• research has shown that a normal well balanced diet provides all necessary vitamins and minerals to support elite performances• dietary fibre is also needed at a balanced level and must not be neglected for the elite performer 38
  39. 39.  glutamine has been shown to help immune systems after exercise creatine has been shown to increase muscle creatine levels to help sustain power output in power events a balanced normal diet will contain sufficient glutamine and creatine for this amino acid / CHO supplementation is often taken in liquid form following exercise. 39
  40. 40.  Food should be eaten 3-4 hours prior to a competition, so that it is well digested and absorbed into the blood stream. High in CHO, low in fat and moderate in fibre. Example- Pasta bake with spinach, a banana and a still flavoured drink. 40
  41. 41. WATER BALANCE (water is 60% of total body mass) water balance at rest:  water loss occurs via evaporation & excretion  majority lost as urine  water intake depends on climate and body mass READ DEHYDRATION ARTICLE FROM BBC SPORT WEBSITE. 41
  42. 42. HYDRATION DURING EXERCISE more water is produced during tissue respiration water is lost mainly as sweat determined by external temperature, body mass and metabolic rate there is increased water loss via expired air due to increased breathing kidneys decrease urine flow in an attempt to decrease dehydration 42
  43. 43.  during a marathon 6-10% of body water content is lost, hence the need for water intake during exercise this means that during 1 hour’s exercise an average person could expect to lose around 1 litre of fluid and even more in hot conditions this could represent as much as 2 litres an hour in warm / humid conditions 43
  44. 44. DEHYDRATION AND LOSS OF PERFORMANCE excessive loss of fluid impairs performance as blood plasma volume decreases and body temperature rises extra strain is placed on the heart, lungs and circulatory system which means that the heart has to work harder to pump blood around the body 44
  45. 45. Current trends in Health 45
  46. 46. TASK  students should research from World Health Organisation (WHO) websites the data which tells you what is happening in various countries of the world  data can include:  obesity  mental health  physical activity  alcohol  tobacco usage  dental health  diabetes  cardiovascular disease  cancer  bone disease WHY IS THE POPULATION OF JAPAN SO HEALTHY?1/26/2012
  47. 47.  Page 36 in Edexcel PE text book. Make notes on how Japan’s government is trying to achieve a healthy nation. How does this compare to the UK or America? 47
  48. 48. Balanced lifestyle 48
  49. 49.  when: ENERGY INTAKE = ENERGY OUTPUT in terms of the energy taken in via food, and the energy output via the needs of daily living (metabolism) plus exercise this is said to be a neutral energy balance a person with a neutral energy balance would neither lose nor gain body mass 49
  50. 50.  What would a Positive energy balance be?? Obesity What would a Negative energy balance be??? Weight loss 50
  51. 51.  it is important to have a balance between the demands of work  which includes time / energy / sleep quality  and life / exercise  including food / social life / sleep  time should be created every day for exercise to balance the stress of the working day  a lifestyle dominated by work and issues connected with work can lead to many of the sedentary lifestyle issues mentioned above:  obesity  cardiovascular disease1/26/2012
  52. 52.  Stress is a response of the body to any demands made. Symptoms can be – physiological, psychological or behavioural. Stress can be dealt by- Rest in a quiet place, try to sleep if possible Reduce breathing rate, mental activity and muscle tension Indentify what has made you stressed, take action, manage time effectively and think positively Keep the body physically fit and in good health. 52
  53. 53. Effects of ageing 53
  54. 54. For each of these suggest either an Reaction increase or times decrease. Memory Muscle and co- strength ordiantion Ageing Lung Max heart tissue rate elasticity Lung Artery capacity Hardening1/26/2012
  55. 55. AGEING• includes all the changes that occur in the body: – restricted joint flexibility (osteoarthritis) – increased body fat – muscle atrophy – osteoporosis, caused by decreased bone mineral (oestrogen deficiency and lack of physical activity in females)ANAEROBIC DECLINE• muscle and strength atrophy• there is a shift towards Slow Twitch fibres• thinner myelinated sheath lengthens reaction times• loss of neurones affects short term memory and coordination 55
  56. 56. AEROBIC DECLINE WITH AGECARDIOVASCULAR• decline in HRmax (HRmax = 220 - age)• increase in resting pulse rate due to decreased SV• artery hardening increases resting systolic BP• recovery takes longer after exerciseRESPIRATORY• VO2max declines about 10% per decade due to reduction in SV & HRmax & lack of aerobic exercise• VC & forced expiratory volume decrease with age• RV larger hence less air exchanged per breath• less elasticity of alveoli walls & reduced strength of respiratory muscles decreases VO2max• lower a-vO2diff since less O2 extracted by muscles 1/26/2012
  57. 57. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE CARDIOVASCULAR • exercise slows down degenerative diseases (CHD) • exercise increases High Density Lipoproteins HDL, and decreases Low Density Lipoproteins LDL • LDL are responsible for depositing cholesterol and narrowing lumen of artery), hence blood pressure tends to be stable thus preventing hypertension RESPIRATORY • exercise slows down decline in VO2max BODY COMPOSITION • exercise reduces obesity by burning off excess fat during and after activity when metabolic rate remains elevated • cardiac workload is less with lower body mass • exercise relieves symptoms of osteoarthritis and reduces osteoporosis NEUROMUSCULAR • exercise sustains strength and coordination levels and enhances tensile strength & flexibility of tendons and ligaments • thus allowing for a fuller range of joint movement1/26/2012
  58. 58. LONG-TERM RESPONSES OF BODY COMPOSITION • example data of relative body fat values for untrained, trained and highly trained males and females relative body fat (%) untrained trained age group females males females males 15-19 20-24 13-16 12-20 7-13 20-29 22-25 15-20 10-18 6-12 30-39 24-30 18-26 12-20 8-14 • note that the average body fat for untrained females is about 8% higher than untrained males • however, trained females are exceptionally lean and their relative body fat values are well below those values for untrained males • therefore females can reduce fat stores well below what is considered normal for their age • Note that untrained males and females have increased body fat when they get older, whereas trained people (both sexes) remain lean1/26/2012
  59. 59. AGEING • maximal anaerobic power for both males and females decreases after 25 years1/26/2012
  60. 60.  most fitness measures fall after the age of about 25  trained individuals fitness levels start at a higher level  and do not fall as far  as untrained individuals  the graph shows how VO2max falls for trained and untrained individuals1/26/2012
  61. 61. CHANGES IN STRENGTH WITH AGE  age related loss of muscle strength is as a result of substantial loss of muscle mass  which accompanies aging and decreased physical activity• there is evidence that older people who continue anaerobic (power) exercises• maintain strength up to the level of an untrained person of 20 years of age 1/26/2012
  62. 62. FACTORS AFFECTING FLEXIBILITY • bony features of a joint – change due to arthritic conditions within joints • length and position of tendons and ligaments – change as strength is lost leading to joint instability and dislocations • elasticity of muscle tissue – change as muscle function declines leading to postural difficulties such as kyphosis • elasticity of skin – changes to increase flabbiness • all these factors change to decrease flexibility with age1/26/2012
  63. 63. METABOLIC RATE• this is a combination of energy expenditure of the body• due to all processes: – the BMR (basal metabolic rate) = rate of energy expenditure while at rest – the SDA (specific dynamic action) = extra rate of energy expenditure due to digestion, absorption of nutrients, and transport of nutrients to body cells) – SDA is usually estimated as 10% of energy value of food consumed – energy expenditure due to exercise• total metabolic rate = all energy expenditure due to exercise + BMR + SDA• this is usually worked out for each kilogram of body mass, for each minute• typical values for men and women of BMR at 20 years of age are: – BMRmale = 100 kJ kg-1 per day BMRfemale= 90 kJ kg-1 per day – BMRmale = 0.069 kJ kg-1 min-1 BMRfemale= 0.063 kJ kg-1 min-11/26/2012
  64. 64. EXERCISE ENERGY CONSUMPTION / METABOLIC RATE WITH AGE • the following table shows how energy is used (total metabolic rate) on average with age: average rates of energy expenditure for men and women living in the USA age men women kJ per day kJ kg-1 min-1 kJ per day kJ kg-1 min-1 15 - 18 12,500 0.132 9,200 0.116 19 - 24 12,100 0.117 9,200 0.110 25 - 50 12,100 0.107 9,200 0.101 50+ 9,640 0.087 7,900 0.085• Note that the figures for kJ kg-1 min-1 are corrected for the average body mass of the group• source: Essentials of Exercise Physiology 3e, McArdle, Katch and Katch, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins 2006 1/26/2012