Foundational kinesiology module 1 basic concepts- jan 2011

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  • Plane of Motion: Fixed planes of reference that divide the body into front and back, right and left, or top and bottom. We use the planes as a point of reference when describing motion of the joints and extremities.
  • Foundational kinesiology module 1 basic concepts- jan 2011

    1. 1. Basic Concepts Community College of Rhode Island RHAB 1100: Foundational Kinesiology Presented By: Jennifer Hurrell, PT, MS These icons will automatically play the sound bytes while you view the slide, or you can click the icon to hear the sound bytes on demand
    2. 2. Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-1 Anatomical Position Standing in an upright position, eyes facing forward, feet parallel and close together, arms at the sides of the body, with the arms facing forward. It is an arbitrary position from which location of structures can be described. Also used as the starting position to describe all movements, except rotational movements in the upper extremity.
    3. 3. Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-1 Fundamental Position Same as the anatomical position, except the palms face the sides of the body. Used as the starting position to describe rotational movements in the upper extremity.
    4. 4. <ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul>Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-2 Location or position toward the midline (middle) of the body Location or position farther away from the midline (middle) of the body
    5. 5. <ul><li>Anterior/Ventral </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior/Dorsal </li></ul>Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-2 Toward the front of the body Toward the back of the body
    6. 6. <ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal </li></ul>Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-2 Point along an extremity that is away from the trunk Point along an extremity that is toward the trunk
    7. 7. <ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul>Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-2 Referring to being above another body part, or the upper surface of a body part Referring to being below another body part, or the lower surface of a body part
    8. 8. <ul><li>Cranial/Cephalad (head) </li></ul><ul><li>Caudal (tail) </li></ul>Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 1-2 Referring to a position or structure close to the head Referring to a position or structure closer to the feet
    9. 9. <ul><li>Superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul>Descriptive Terminology Lippert Figure 15-9 <ul><ul><li>Close to the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referring to a structure that is deeper than another </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Cardinal Planes of Motion <ul><li>Center of Gravity </li></ul>Lippert Figure 3-15 Center of Gravity The center of gravity is the point where the three cardinal planes of motion intersect. In an adult human the center of gravity rests just anterior to the second sacral vertebrae
    11. 11. Cardinal Planes of Motion <ul><li>The sagittal plane extends from the anterior to the posterior aspect of the body and divides the body into right and left halves. Motions of flexion and extension take place in the sagittal plane. </li></ul>Lippert Figure 3-14 The Sagittal Plane
    12. 12. <ul><li>The frontal plane extends from one side of the body to the other and divides the body into front and back parts. Motions of abduction and adduction take place in the frontal plane. </li></ul>Cardinal Planes of Motion Lippert Figure 3-14 The Frontal Plane
    13. 13. Cardinal Planes of Motion <ul><li>The transverse plane extends horizontally through the body and divides the body into top and bottom sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Motions such as rotation of the head, shoulder and hip take place in the transverse plane. </li></ul>Lippert Figure 3-14 The Transverse Plane
    14. 14. Generic Joint Motions Sagittal Plane <ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bending movement of one bone on another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs due to anterior movement in the sagittal plane, which brings the anterior surfaces of two bones closer together </li></ul></ul>Lippert Figures 10-2, 18-2 <ul><ul><li>The knees and toes are exceptions, because flexion occurs with posterior movement in the sagittal plane, which brings the posterior surfaces closer together </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Generic Joint Motions Sagittal Plane <ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The straightening movement of one bone on another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The knees and toes are exceptions, because extension occurs with anterior movement in the sagittal plane, which brings the posterior surfaces further apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs due to posterior movement in the sagittal plane, which bring the anterior surfaces of two bones further apart </li></ul></ul>Lippert Figures 10-2, 18-2
    16. 16. Generic Joint Motions Frontal Plane <ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement away from the midline of the body in the frontal plane </li></ul></ul>Lippert Figures 9-2, 17-3
    17. 17. Generic Joint Motions Frontal Plane <ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement toward the midline of the body in the frontal plane </li></ul></ul>Lippert Figures 9-2, 17-3
    18. 18. Generic Joint Motions Transverse Plane <ul><li>Internal/Medial Rotation </li></ul>Lippert Figures 17-3 <ul><ul><li>Rotation of the anterior surface of a bone toward the midline. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Generic Joint Motions Transverse Plane <ul><li>External/Lateral Rotation </li></ul>Lippert Figures 17-3 <ul><ul><li>Rotation of the anterior surface of a bone away from the midline. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Generic Joint Motions Combination Plane <ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul>Lippert Figure 9-2 <ul><ul><li>Motion where the distal end of an extremity moves through a wide arc in space </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Bone Markings Depressions and Openings <ul><li>Foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Groove </li></ul><ul><li>Meatus </li></ul>Lippert Table 2-3 Hole through which blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments pass Hollow or depression Ditch like trench containing a tendon or blood vessel Canal or tube like opening in a bone
    22. 22. Bone Markings Projections or Processes that fit into Joints <ul><li>Condyle </li></ul><ul><li>Eminence </li></ul><ul><li>Facet </li></ul><ul><li>Head </li></ul>Lippert Table 2-3 Round Knuckle-like projection Prominent, projecting part of a bone Flat or shallow articular surface Rounded articular projection beyond a narrow neck-like portion of bone
    23. 23. Bone Markings Projections or Processes that Attach to Connective Tissue <ul><li>Crest </li></ul><ul><li>Epicondyle </li></ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>Trochanter </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberosity </li></ul>Lippert Table 2-3 Sharp ridge or border Prominence above or on a condyle Less prominent ridge Long thin projection Very large prominence for muscle attachment Small rounded projection Large rough and rounded projection
    24. 24. Muscle Fundamentals <ul><li>Attachment Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insertion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentric Muscle Contraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The attachment point of the muscle on the more stable bone. Usually the attachment point closest to the trunk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The attachment point of the muscle on the more movable bone. Usually the more distal attachment point. </li></ul></ul>When a muscle contracts, it shortens. As it shortens, the insertion moves toward the origin.
    25. 25. Descriptors of Muscle Function <ul><li>Agonist/ Prime Mover </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting Mover </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist </li></ul>The muscle or muscle group that causes the majority of the motion A muscle that is not as effective, but does provide assistance in completing the motion The muscle that performs the opposite action as the agonist (it is usually relaxed during contraction of the agonist)
    26. 26. Determinants of Muscle Action <ul><li>Muscle Position </li></ul><ul><li>Line of Pull </li></ul>Lippert Figure 5-12 Lines of pull are made up of vertical and horizontal force vectors. To determine which motion the muscle is prime mover for, determine which force vector is greater. In order for a muscle to move a joint, the muscle must cross that joint (the origin is on one side of the joint and the insertion on the other)
    27. 27. References <ul><li>Lippert, Lynn S. (2006). Clinical Kinesiology and Anatomy. 4 th Ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Norkin C.C. & D.J. White. (2003). Measurement of Joint Motion: A Guide to Goniometry. 3 rd Ed . Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Sieg, K.W. & S.P. Adams. (2002). Illustrated Essentials of Musculoskeletal Anatomy. 4 th Ed . Gainesville: Megabooks. </li></ul>

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