SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Big Universe
Really, really big!
From Kant to Curtis:
Are there other Galaxies? or just ours?
• Immanuel Kant, Swedenborg, Thomas Wright in 18th century - island
universes
• Messier famous for his catalog called fuzzy unclear nebulae ‘nuisances’
• Earl of Rosse 1855, M51 is a spiral shape
• And yet at the beginning of the 20th century scientific consensus was
nebulae were within our Milky Way
• 1914 Slipher velocity - 300 km/s velocity for Andromeda galaxy
• 1920: Curtis (other galaxies) - Shapley (no) debate, Curtis wins
Age of Universe
13.8 billion years
Multiple methods, including
Cosmic microwave background
radiation (CMB)
(2.73 Kelvins from epoch 380,000
years)
Temperature fluctuations (very tiny)
Size = Age?
Is the size = age * c ?
13.8 billion light-years ?
No! But proportional
Speed of light, c
300,000 kilometers per second
Sun 500 light-seconds
31.6 million seconds per year
Proxima Centauri 4.25 light-years
Andromeda galaxy 2.5 million ly
Redshift, z
Due to cosmological expansion
Not same as Doppler shift
Depends on cosmological details
z ~ 0 nearest galaxies
v ~ cz nearby 

z = 1, wavelength doubled
z = 11 oldest galaxy
z = 1100 CMB
Scale factor for size
Define a = 1 as present
a = 1/(1+z)
Relative volume ~ a^3
Density matter ~ 1/a^3
Horizon
Hubble's Law
Uniform expansion
v = H*d
H0 ~ 21 km/sec/ million ly
(68 km/sec/Mpc)
Hubble sphere, radius
Rh = c/H
14.4 billion ly
Smaller than our 'proper' horizon
Light cone
Stuff we can now see from past
As we look farther in distance, we necessarily
look back in time (higher redshift)
Proper distance
Distance accounting for the expansion of the universe
(Where that other galaxy would be now)
During light travel time
R ~ 46 billion ly ~ 3.2 Rh
Is our particle horizon
Local universe
(Observable)
Volume ~ 34 Hubble spheres
Using 3.23^3
Event horizon
There is a limited region that is
Possible for us to ever see in future
It is shrinking in relative terms
Since the expansion is accelerating
A trillion years from now we will only see
Our own (super) galaxy
Implied Universe
Curvature parameter K
K = 0 flat
K > 0 closed
K < 0 open
|K| < 1/2 of 1%
Homogeneous, isotropic, non-rotating
On largest scales > 500 million ly
Reasonable to assume that what is beyond
Our observable universe is more of the same
Minimum Universe
Since K small, even if spherical
Thousands of Hubble Spheres:
Volume > 251 x Observable 'proper' volume
Inflation
Why is U isotropic?
CMB same everywhere
But regions were too far apart
to have been in communication,
Even those only 2 degrees apart in the sky
Inflation
Scalar field that decayed at ~ 10^-33 or 10^-32 sec. Or later.
Had property of negative pressure (like dark energy)
Dumped energy into radiation, particles
Expanded the universe by at least
~ 100 trillion trillion (each dimension)
Made it flat, isotropic, homogeneous
Scale from one billionth of a proton to size of a grapefruit
Inflation
Inflation is not about making the universe bigger so
much as it is about making the starting kernel for our
universe much smaller!
It drives everything to be homogenous, isotropic, and
for the space to be flat and for the mass-energy
density to be = 1 in units of critical density
(Critical density is the boundary between eventual
collapse and continual expansion for a matter-only
universe)
At least a factor of 10^26, each dimension
(nearly a trillion trillion trillion)
Inflationary Universe
Alan Guth, 1979
Could be enormously larger
Factor > 100 trillion trillion
Corresponds to 60 e-folds
Expansion in each dimension
Factor of e (2.71828) over and
over for 60 timesDocument inflation
Example Inflation Model
• Depends on detailed inflation model
• Slow roll models
• e.g. SMASH model of Ballesteros et al. fits cosmic
microwave background observations around 60 to 80 e-
folds
• If 70 e-folds, universe is larger by 22,000 times in each of
the 3 dimensions
• Volume larger by 10 trillion relative to our observable
(particle horizon)
SMASH Model
Figure 1 from “Unifying inflation
with the axion, dark matter,
baryogenesis and the seesaw
mechanism” G. Ballesteros et al.
2016 arxiv:1608.05414v1.
The colored regions are the
Planck and other experiment
measurements. ns is the spectral
index for density fluctuations and r
is the tensor to scalar power ratio.
The nearly vertical lines labelled
50, 60, 70, 80 refer to the number
of e-folds during inflation. Around
50 to 100 e-folds seem to be
indicated by the data, with the
best fit around 70.
Eternal Inflation
Many inflation models (e.g.
'chaotic) suggest Eternal Inflation
Eternal is forward in time (only?)
Many ‘pocket universes' are
created: Multiverse
Each universe has its own
physics
Multiverse as a whole is heading
inexorably toward Infinity
Steinhardt, Viliken, Linde
(‘chaotic inflation’)
Mickey Mouse
Summary: How Big?
• Observable 34 Hubble spheres of 14 billion light-
year radius - Very Big
• Implied has 216 Hubble spheres - Super Big
• Inflationary models indicate could be trillions of
times larger - Enormously Big
• All that is for one universe
• Then there's the Multiverse - Unfathomably Big
Learn More
• darkmatterdarkenergy.com
• https://darkmatterdarkenergy.com/2015/12/06/eternal-inflation-and-the-
multiverse/ - references to Guth and Linde review articles
• https://darkmatterdarkenergy.com/2016/10/31/axions-inflation-and-
baryogenesis-its-a-smash-pi/
• 72beautifulgalaxies.com
• Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Dark Gravity (Amazon)
• 72 Beautiful Galaxies (iTunes, Amazon)

More Related Content

What's hot

Chapter 16 Lecture
Chapter 16 LectureChapter 16 Lecture
Chapter 16 Lecture
dlsupport
 
Supernova
SupernovaSupernova
Keplers law
Keplers lawKeplers law
Multiple choices questions 4-
Multiple choices questions 4-Multiple choices questions 4-
Multiple choices questions 4-
Cinemath Paradise
 
Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...
Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...
Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...
John ZuHone
 
CA 10.02 Making CMB Maps
CA 10.02 Making CMB MapsCA 10.02 Making CMB Maps
CA 10.02 Making CMB Maps
Stephen Kwong
 
Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small Scales
Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small ScalesGalaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small Scales
Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small Scales
John ZuHone
 
Ch 1 -the powers of ten
Ch 1 -the powers of tenCh 1 -the powers of ten
Ch 1 -the powers of ten
cphsastronomy
 
CA 10.03 CMB Uniform Distribution
CA 10.03 CMB Uniform DistributionCA 10.03 CMB Uniform Distribution
CA 10.03 CMB Uniform Distribution
Stephen Kwong
 
9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law
9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law
9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law
simonandisa
 
Earth – moon gravity primer
Earth – moon gravity primerEarth – moon gravity primer
Earth – moon gravity primer
Marcus 2012
 
What is G
What is GWhat is G
What is G
Veer Kumar
 
Multiple choices questions 3-
Multiple choices questions 3-Multiple choices questions 3-
Multiple choices questions 3-
Cinemath Paradise
 
NOBEL PROJECT
NOBEL PROJECTNOBEL PROJECT
Space facts!
Space facts!Space facts!
Space facts!
VidyanshiMittal
 
How big is earth
How big is earthHow big is earth
How big is earth
aealey
 
Pre assessment
Pre assessmentPre assessment
Pre assessment
Sze-leung Cheung
 
Galaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon Lomberg
Galaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon LombergGalaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon Lomberg
Galaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon Lomberg
ILOAHawaii
 
Cosmology And Astronomy
Cosmology And AstronomyCosmology And Astronomy
Cosmology And Astronomy
Marinela L
 
Rel Lunch Jan24
Rel Lunch Jan24Rel Lunch Jan24
Rel Lunch Jan24
ruxandra
 

What's hot (20)

Chapter 16 Lecture
Chapter 16 LectureChapter 16 Lecture
Chapter 16 Lecture
 
Supernova
SupernovaSupernova
Supernova
 
Keplers law
Keplers lawKeplers law
Keplers law
 
Multiple choices questions 4-
Multiple choices questions 4-Multiple choices questions 4-
Multiple choices questions 4-
 
Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...
Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...
Simulating Astro-H Observations of Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions: What We Can Ex...
 
CA 10.02 Making CMB Maps
CA 10.02 Making CMB MapsCA 10.02 Making CMB Maps
CA 10.02 Making CMB Maps
 
Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small Scales
Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small ScalesGalaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small Scales
Galaxy Cluster Gas Motions with X-ray Surveyor: Probing the Small Scales
 
Ch 1 -the powers of ten
Ch 1 -the powers of tenCh 1 -the powers of ten
Ch 1 -the powers of ten
 
CA 10.03 CMB Uniform Distribution
CA 10.03 CMB Uniform DistributionCA 10.03 CMB Uniform Distribution
CA 10.03 CMB Uniform Distribution
 
9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law
9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law
9.4 - Orbital Motion & Kepler's third law
 
Earth – moon gravity primer
Earth – moon gravity primerEarth – moon gravity primer
Earth – moon gravity primer
 
What is G
What is GWhat is G
What is G
 
Multiple choices questions 3-
Multiple choices questions 3-Multiple choices questions 3-
Multiple choices questions 3-
 
NOBEL PROJECT
NOBEL PROJECTNOBEL PROJECT
NOBEL PROJECT
 
Space facts!
Space facts!Space facts!
Space facts!
 
How big is earth
How big is earthHow big is earth
How big is earth
 
Pre assessment
Pre assessmentPre assessment
Pre assessment
 
Galaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon Lomberg
Galaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon LombergGalaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon Lomberg
Galaxy Forum USA 2012 - Jon Lomberg
 
Cosmology And Astronomy
Cosmology And AstronomyCosmology And Astronomy
Cosmology And Astronomy
 
Rel Lunch Jan24
Rel Lunch Jan24Rel Lunch Jan24
Rel Lunch Jan24
 

Viewers also liked

Sarita chauhan seminar on black hole
Sarita chauhan seminar on black holeSarita chauhan seminar on black hole
Sarita chauhan seminar on black hole
vishakhasarita
 
Underwaterwelding
Underwaterwelding Underwaterwelding
Underwaterwelding
manoj
 
UNDERWATER WELDING
UNDERWATER WELDINGUNDERWATER WELDING
UNDERWATER WELDING
Amrih Prayogo
 
Underwater welding
Underwater weldingUnderwater welding
Underwater welding
DERALD FURTADO
 
Under water welding.smnr
Under water welding.smnrUnder water welding.smnr
Under water welding.smnr
Chuchu Beera
 
Dry welding and wet welding
Dry welding and wet weldingDry welding and wet welding
Dry welding and wet welding
E mechatroonix
 
Underwater Welding
Underwater WeldingUnderwater Welding
Underwater Welding
Karan Prajapati
 
Underwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaa
Underwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaaUnderwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaa
Underwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaa
Arup Pal
 
Under water welding PPT
Under water welding PPTUnder water welding PPT
Under water welding PPT
vikas p.s
 
Under water welding
Under water weldingUnder water welding
Under water welding
ALOK RAJ
 
Relativity theory
Relativity theoryRelativity theory
Relativity theory
Yugesh Naidu
 
B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...
B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...
B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...
Abhi Hirpara
 
RELATIVITY THEORY
RELATIVITY THEORYRELATIVITY THEORY
RELATIVITY THEORY
oguadano99
 
Special Theory Of Relativity
Special Theory Of RelativitySpecial Theory Of Relativity
Special Theory Of Relativity
Nikhil Sharma
 
AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017
AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017
AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017
Carol Smith
 

Viewers also liked (15)

Sarita chauhan seminar on black hole
Sarita chauhan seminar on black holeSarita chauhan seminar on black hole
Sarita chauhan seminar on black hole
 
Underwaterwelding
Underwaterwelding Underwaterwelding
Underwaterwelding
 
UNDERWATER WELDING
UNDERWATER WELDINGUNDERWATER WELDING
UNDERWATER WELDING
 
Underwater welding
Underwater weldingUnderwater welding
Underwater welding
 
Under water welding.smnr
Under water welding.smnrUnder water welding.smnr
Under water welding.smnr
 
Dry welding and wet welding
Dry welding and wet weldingDry welding and wet welding
Dry welding and wet welding
 
Underwater Welding
Underwater WeldingUnderwater Welding
Underwater Welding
 
Underwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaa
Underwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaaUnderwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaa
Underwaterwelding 121020023417-phpaaa
 
Under water welding PPT
Under water welding PPTUnder water welding PPT
Under water welding PPT
 
Under water welding
Under water weldingUnder water welding
Under water welding
 
Relativity theory
Relativity theoryRelativity theory
Relativity theory
 
B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...
B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...
B.Tech sem I Engineering Physics U-III Chapter 1-THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATI...
 
RELATIVITY THEORY
RELATIVITY THEORYRELATIVITY THEORY
RELATIVITY THEORY
 
Special Theory Of Relativity
Special Theory Of RelativitySpecial Theory Of Relativity
Special Theory Of Relativity
 
AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017
AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017
AI and Machine Learning Demystified by Carol Smith at Midwest UX 2017
 

Similar to Big universe

Astronomy - Stat eof the Art - Cosmology
Astronomy - Stat eof the Art - CosmologyAstronomy - Stat eof the Art - Cosmology
Astronomy - Stat eof the Art - Cosmology
Chris Impey
 
Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk
Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk
Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk
Rene Kotze
 
Galaxies_BigBang_Dark Matter
Galaxies_BigBang_Dark MatterGalaxies_BigBang_Dark Matter
Galaxies_BigBang_Dark Matter
Stephen Perrenod
 
D3
D3D3
BASICS OF COSMOLOGY
BASICS OF COSMOLOGYBASICS OF COSMOLOGY
BASICS OF COSMOLOGY
Uvanjelin Nithya
 
Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"
Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"
Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"
SEENET-MTP
 
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of StructureThe Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
DanielBaumann11
 
10 wonderful-universe
10 wonderful-universe10 wonderful-universe
10 wonderful-universe
Kees De Jager
 
Astronomy - State of the Art - Galaxies
Astronomy - State of the Art - GalaxiesAstronomy - State of the Art - Galaxies
Astronomy - State of the Art - Galaxies
Chris Impey
 
Evidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).ppt
Evidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).pptEvidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).ppt
Evidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).ppt
qtkdn5dfry
 
The Space Case (Drake) Equation
The Space Case (Drake) EquationThe Space Case (Drake) Equation
The Space Case (Drake) Equation
hlavedon
 
Extra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdf
Extra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdfExtra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdf
Extra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdf
Eran Sinbar
 
L2SolarFlares.pptx
L2SolarFlares.pptxL2SolarFlares.pptx
L2SolarFlares.pptx
Parimal Dave
 
Light
LightLight
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of StructureThe Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
DanielBaumann11
 
High Energy Astrophysics Dissertation
High Energy Astrophysics DissertationHigh Energy Astrophysics Dissertation
High Energy Astrophysics Dissertation
Alexander Booth
 
Chapter 17 Lecture
Chapter 17 LectureChapter 17 Lecture
Chapter 17 Lecture
dlsupport
 
On the Origin of Structure in the Universe
On the Origin of Structure in the UniverseOn the Origin of Structure in the Universe
On the Origin of Structure in the Universe
DanielBaumann11
 
Ph 101-6
Ph 101-6Ph 101-6
Ph 101-6
Chandan Singh
 
Magnetic sun
Magnetic sunMagnetic sun
Magnetic sun
Oyster River HS
 

Similar to Big universe (20)

Astronomy - Stat eof the Art - Cosmology
Astronomy - Stat eof the Art - CosmologyAstronomy - Stat eof the Art - Cosmology
Astronomy - Stat eof the Art - Cosmology
 
Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk
Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk
Prof Jonathan Sievers (UKZN) NITheP Associate Workshop talk
 
Galaxies_BigBang_Dark Matter
Galaxies_BigBang_Dark MatterGalaxies_BigBang_Dark Matter
Galaxies_BigBang_Dark Matter
 
D3
D3D3
D3
 
BASICS OF COSMOLOGY
BASICS OF COSMOLOGYBASICS OF COSMOLOGY
BASICS OF COSMOLOGY
 
Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"
Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"
Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"
 
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of StructureThe Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
 
10 wonderful-universe
10 wonderful-universe10 wonderful-universe
10 wonderful-universe
 
Astronomy - State of the Art - Galaxies
Astronomy - State of the Art - GalaxiesAstronomy - State of the Art - Galaxies
Astronomy - State of the Art - Galaxies
 
Evidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).ppt
Evidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).pptEvidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).ppt
Evidence for the Big Bang Theory (A2 Level).ppt
 
The Space Case (Drake) Equation
The Space Case (Drake) EquationThe Space Case (Drake) Equation
The Space Case (Drake) Equation
 
Extra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdf
Extra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdfExtra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdf
Extra dimensions and the arrow of time.pdf
 
L2SolarFlares.pptx
L2SolarFlares.pptxL2SolarFlares.pptx
L2SolarFlares.pptx
 
Light
LightLight
Light
 
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of StructureThe Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure
 
High Energy Astrophysics Dissertation
High Energy Astrophysics DissertationHigh Energy Astrophysics Dissertation
High Energy Astrophysics Dissertation
 
Chapter 17 Lecture
Chapter 17 LectureChapter 17 Lecture
Chapter 17 Lecture
 
On the Origin of Structure in the Universe
On the Origin of Structure in the UniverseOn the Origin of Structure in the Universe
On the Origin of Structure in the Universe
 
Ph 101-6
Ph 101-6Ph 101-6
Ph 101-6
 
Magnetic sun
Magnetic sunMagnetic sun
Magnetic sun
 

More from Stephen Perrenod

TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
Stephen Perrenod
 
The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?
The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?
The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?
Stephen Perrenod
 
TopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdfTopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdf
Stephen Perrenod
 
TopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdfTopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdf
Stephen Perrenod
 
CryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdf
CryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdfCryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdf
CryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdf
Stephen Perrenod
 
TopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdfTopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdf
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top CryptoSupers Seventh Edition
Top CryptoSupers Seventh EditionTop CryptoSupers Seventh Edition
Top CryptoSupers Seventh Edition
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top Cryptosupers jun2021
Top Cryptosupers jun2021Top Cryptosupers jun2021
Top Cryptosupers jun2021
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020
Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020
Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020
Stephen Perrenod
 
CryptoSuper 500 November 2019
CryptoSuper 500 November 2019CryptoSuper 500 November 2019
CryptoSuper 500 November 2019
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top cryptosupers 201906v1
Top cryptosupers 201906v1Top cryptosupers 201906v1
Top cryptosupers 201906v1
Stephen Perrenod
 
Top cryptosupers 20181112v3
Top cryptosupers 20181112v3Top cryptosupers 20181112v3
Top cryptosupers 20181112v3
Stephen Perrenod
 
Emergent Gravity according to Verlinde
Emergent Gravity according to VerlindeEmergent Gravity according to Verlinde
Emergent Gravity according to Verlinde
Stephen Perrenod
 
Galaxies, Dark Matter and the Universe
Galaxies, Dark Matter and the UniverseGalaxies, Dark Matter and the Universe
Galaxies, Dark Matter and the Universe
Stephen Perrenod
 

More from Stephen Perrenod (16)

TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
 
The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?
The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?
The Power Laws of Bitcoin: How can an S-curve be a power law?
 
TopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdfTopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-11th-Slides-Nov2023.pdf
 
TopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdfTopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2023.pdf
 
CryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdf
CryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdfCryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdf
CryptoSuperNinthList-Nov2022.pdf
 
TopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdfTopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdf
TopCryptoSupers-May2022.pdf
 
Top CryptoSupers Seventh Edition
Top CryptoSupers Seventh EditionTop CryptoSupers Seventh Edition
Top CryptoSupers Seventh Edition
 
Top Cryptosupers jun2021
Top Cryptosupers jun2021Top Cryptosupers jun2021
Top Cryptosupers jun2021
 
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
 
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
Top cryptosupers nov2020v2
 
Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020
Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020
Top 50 Cryptocurrency Supercomputers, June 2020
 
CryptoSuper 500 November 2019
CryptoSuper 500 November 2019CryptoSuper 500 November 2019
CryptoSuper 500 November 2019
 
Top cryptosupers 201906v1
Top cryptosupers 201906v1Top cryptosupers 201906v1
Top cryptosupers 201906v1
 
Top cryptosupers 20181112v3
Top cryptosupers 20181112v3Top cryptosupers 20181112v3
Top cryptosupers 20181112v3
 
Emergent Gravity according to Verlinde
Emergent Gravity according to VerlindeEmergent Gravity according to Verlinde
Emergent Gravity according to Verlinde
 
Galaxies, Dark Matter and the Universe
Galaxies, Dark Matter and the UniverseGalaxies, Dark Matter and the Universe
Galaxies, Dark Matter and the Universe
 

Recently uploaded

SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptxSCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
WALTONMARBRUCAL
 
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptxBragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Lisandro Cunci
 
Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)
Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)
Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)
saloniswain225
 
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
Thane Heins
 
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary TrackThe Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
Sérgio Sacani
 
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopyA mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
Sérgio Sacani
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Recupera
 
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptxpoikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
muralinath2
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
Sharon Liu
 
Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet
Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanetHydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet
Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet
Sérgio Sacani
 
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
Sérgio Sacani
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
muralinath2
 
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - ArtemisLunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Sérgio Sacani
 
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDEANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
RanjithaSL
 
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptxSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
JoanaBanasen1
 
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
James AH Campbell
 
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratoryLOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
JCKH
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan universitySummer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
Hayato Shimabukuro
 

Recently uploaded (20)

SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptxSCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
 
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptxBragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
 
Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)
Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)
Properties of virus(Ultrastructure and types of virus)
 
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
 
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary TrackThe Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
 
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopyA mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
 
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptxpoikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
 
Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet
Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanetHydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet
Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet
 
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
 
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - ArtemisLunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
 
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDEANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
 
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptxSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
 
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
 
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratoryLOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
 
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
 
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan universitySummer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
 

Big universe

  • 2. From Kant to Curtis: Are there other Galaxies? or just ours? • Immanuel Kant, Swedenborg, Thomas Wright in 18th century - island universes • Messier famous for his catalog called fuzzy unclear nebulae ‘nuisances’ • Earl of Rosse 1855, M51 is a spiral shape • And yet at the beginning of the 20th century scientific consensus was nebulae were within our Milky Way • 1914 Slipher velocity - 300 km/s velocity for Andromeda galaxy • 1920: Curtis (other galaxies) - Shapley (no) debate, Curtis wins
  • 3. Age of Universe 13.8 billion years Multiple methods, including Cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) (2.73 Kelvins from epoch 380,000 years) Temperature fluctuations (very tiny)
  • 4. Size = Age? Is the size = age * c ? 13.8 billion light-years ? No! But proportional
  • 5. Speed of light, c 300,000 kilometers per second Sun 500 light-seconds 31.6 million seconds per year Proxima Centauri 4.25 light-years Andromeda galaxy 2.5 million ly
  • 6. Redshift, z Due to cosmological expansion Not same as Doppler shift Depends on cosmological details z ~ 0 nearest galaxies v ~ cz nearby 
 z = 1, wavelength doubled z = 11 oldest galaxy z = 1100 CMB
  • 7. Scale factor for size Define a = 1 as present a = 1/(1+z) Relative volume ~ a^3 Density matter ~ 1/a^3
  • 9. Hubble's Law Uniform expansion v = H*d H0 ~ 21 km/sec/ million ly (68 km/sec/Mpc)
  • 10. Hubble sphere, radius Rh = c/H 14.4 billion ly Smaller than our 'proper' horizon
  • 11. Light cone Stuff we can now see from past As we look farther in distance, we necessarily look back in time (higher redshift)
  • 12. Proper distance Distance accounting for the expansion of the universe (Where that other galaxy would be now) During light travel time R ~ 46 billion ly ~ 3.2 Rh Is our particle horizon
  • 13. Local universe (Observable) Volume ~ 34 Hubble spheres Using 3.23^3
  • 14. Event horizon There is a limited region that is Possible for us to ever see in future It is shrinking in relative terms Since the expansion is accelerating A trillion years from now we will only see Our own (super) galaxy
  • 15. Implied Universe Curvature parameter K K = 0 flat K > 0 closed K < 0 open
  • 16. |K| < 1/2 of 1% Homogeneous, isotropic, non-rotating On largest scales > 500 million ly Reasonable to assume that what is beyond Our observable universe is more of the same
  • 17. Minimum Universe Since K small, even if spherical Thousands of Hubble Spheres: Volume > 251 x Observable 'proper' volume
  • 18. Inflation Why is U isotropic? CMB same everywhere But regions were too far apart to have been in communication, Even those only 2 degrees apart in the sky
  • 19. Inflation Scalar field that decayed at ~ 10^-33 or 10^-32 sec. Or later. Had property of negative pressure (like dark energy) Dumped energy into radiation, particles Expanded the universe by at least ~ 100 trillion trillion (each dimension) Made it flat, isotropic, homogeneous Scale from one billionth of a proton to size of a grapefruit
  • 20. Inflation Inflation is not about making the universe bigger so much as it is about making the starting kernel for our universe much smaller! It drives everything to be homogenous, isotropic, and for the space to be flat and for the mass-energy density to be = 1 in units of critical density (Critical density is the boundary between eventual collapse and continual expansion for a matter-only universe) At least a factor of 10^26, each dimension (nearly a trillion trillion trillion)
  • 21. Inflationary Universe Alan Guth, 1979 Could be enormously larger Factor > 100 trillion trillion Corresponds to 60 e-folds Expansion in each dimension Factor of e (2.71828) over and over for 60 timesDocument inflation
  • 22. Example Inflation Model • Depends on detailed inflation model • Slow roll models • e.g. SMASH model of Ballesteros et al. fits cosmic microwave background observations around 60 to 80 e- folds • If 70 e-folds, universe is larger by 22,000 times in each of the 3 dimensions • Volume larger by 10 trillion relative to our observable (particle horizon)
  • 23. SMASH Model Figure 1 from “Unifying inflation with the axion, dark matter, baryogenesis and the seesaw mechanism” G. Ballesteros et al. 2016 arxiv:1608.05414v1. The colored regions are the Planck and other experiment measurements. ns is the spectral index for density fluctuations and r is the tensor to scalar power ratio. The nearly vertical lines labelled 50, 60, 70, 80 refer to the number of e-folds during inflation. Around 50 to 100 e-folds seem to be indicated by the data, with the best fit around 70.
  • 24. Eternal Inflation Many inflation models (e.g. 'chaotic) suggest Eternal Inflation Eternal is forward in time (only?) Many ‘pocket universes' are created: Multiverse Each universe has its own physics Multiverse as a whole is heading inexorably toward Infinity Steinhardt, Viliken, Linde (‘chaotic inflation’) Mickey Mouse
  • 25. Summary: How Big? • Observable 34 Hubble spheres of 14 billion light- year radius - Very Big • Implied has 216 Hubble spheres - Super Big • Inflationary models indicate could be trillions of times larger - Enormously Big • All that is for one universe • Then there's the Multiverse - Unfathomably Big
  • 26. Learn More • darkmatterdarkenergy.com • https://darkmatterdarkenergy.com/2015/12/06/eternal-inflation-and-the- multiverse/ - references to Guth and Linde review articles • https://darkmatterdarkenergy.com/2016/10/31/axions-inflation-and- baryogenesis-its-a-smash-pi/ • 72beautifulgalaxies.com • Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Dark Gravity (Amazon) • 72 Beautiful Galaxies (iTunes, Amazon)