Water Security in Peri-Urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanization Second Coordination Workshop 22-26 March 2011 Khulna, Bangladesh Outcome of SCOPING STUDY Khulna Site Institute of Water and Flood Management,Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Khulna CityThird largest metropolitan city- Population 1.4 million (3.8% growth)- Area 46 sq. km- On the banks of Rupsha-Bhairab (Ganges tidal plain)- Mayur river system is central to stormwater and wastewater drainage, water supply, ecosystem and livelihoodWater institutions:- KDA, KCC, Khulna WASA, Union-level community organizations- Strong NGO, civil society mobilization around water (Coastal Water Convention 2011)- Mayor popular across party lines
Khulna CityUrbanization stress on peri-urbancommunities- Land conversion and depleting waterbodies- Wastewater dischargeAdverse impacts on livelihoodsDisplacement of the poorPossible climate change impacts- Sea level rise resulting in salinity intrusion, drainage congestion and storm surge floodingAdverse impacts on vulnerable communities
Objectives of Scoping Study• Understand socioeconomic and biophysical contexts of different vulnerable groups• Understand dimensions and extents of research issues• Identify key research questions• Identify final study sites for research and action
Methodology of Scoping StudySteps/Activities:•Preliminary identification of vulnerable communities•Identification of research issues•Selection of preliminary sites•Selection of study sites for further study.
Methodology of Scoping StudyApproach:Participatory learningTools/Process:• Stakeholder meetings• FGDs• Transect walks• Social mapping• Key informant interviews• Literature review
Methodology of Scoping Study Social mapping at South Labonchara FGD at Chhoto Boyra.Meeting with Khulna Development Authority Consultation with NGOs and civil society
Major Outcome of Scoping Study Preliminary Sites Name of Site Primary Water Use1 Alutala 10-vent sluice gate Domestic, agricultural and fisheries (capture and culture)2 South Labonchara (near Domestic, agricultural and two sluice gates) industrial2 South Labonchara (Matha Domestic, agricultural and Bhanga Village) industrial3 Mohammodia Para Domestic, agricultural and industrial4 North Labonchara (near Domestic and industrial Rupsha bridge)5 Mohmmad Nagar (Zero- Domestic, agricultural and point) industrial6 Gollamary bridge Domestic and industrial7 Boyra (near Boyra Domestic, agricultural and residential area) industrial8 Chhoto Boyra (Shashan Domestic and agricultural Ghat)9 Nirala (beside Nirala Domestic and agricultural residential area)10 Dowlatpur Domestic and agricultural11 Khalishpur industrial zone Domestic and industrial12 Rupsha ferry ghat Domestic, industrial and water transport
Major Outcome of Scoping StudySpecial Issues• Water scarcity for drinking, washing, sanitation and agricultural use• Vulnerability to wastewater discharge, solid waste dumping (Mayur river), flooding and water logging• Vulnerability to climate change induced sea level rise and salinity intrusion• Salinity, excessive iron and arsenic in groundwater• Absence of community participation in (Alutala) sluice gate operation and management• Absence of community participation and institutional arrangement for water management• Conflict between upstream and downstream (Mayur river) water users• Conflict between urban and peri-urban water users
Major Outcome of Scoping Study Site-specific Issues Name of Site Socio-economic Characteristics Issues/Problems IdentifiedAlutala 10-vent Alutala is about 10 km from Khulna city Acute drinking water scarcity.sluice gate boundary. It is situated at Botiaghata thana Conflict between upstream and downstream (Mayur of Khulna district. Agriculture and culture river) water users. fisheries are two major activities at this Vulnerability to climate change induced sea level rise. location. People are mostly dependent on Vulnerability to flooding and water logging. agricultural labor, and capture and culture Salinity intrusion in groundwater. fisheries. Absence of community participation in sluice gate operation and management.South Labonchara Situated beside the Rupsha-Bhairab river. Acute water scarcity for drinking, washing and sanitation.(near two sluice About 250-300 households on the river Conflict between urban and peri-urban water users.gates) bank are vulnerable to annual flooding, Vulnerability to climate change induced sea level rise.GPS Coordinates: drinking water scarcity, river erosion and Vulnerability to flooding and water logging.N 22046.110’ climate change impacts. Most people of Salinity, excessive iron and arsenic in groundwater.E 89034.541’ this location are dependent on informal Absence of community participation and institutional business in city and nearby agriculture and framework. fish firms. Lack of sluice gate management (gates are non- functional).South Labonchara Situated between Alutala and two sluice Very few tube wells for a large number of households(Matha Bhanga gates of South Labonchara. Around 500 (250-300).Village) households are located on the river bank Vulnerability to climate change induced sea level rise. (Rupsha-Bhairab). Most people at this Salinity, excessive iron and arsenic in groundwater. location are day laborer in the nearby jute Absence of community participation and institutional industries, and agriculture or fish firms. framework for water management.
Major Outcome of Scoping Study Site-specific Issues Name of Site Socio-economic Characteristics Issues/Problems IdentifiedNorth Labonchara People living in about 800-1000 Very few tube wells for a large number of households(near Rupsha bridge) households are engaged in informal (300-400).GPS Coordinates: business in the city area. Women of this Water logging due to urban wastewater discharge.N 22046.694’ locality are mostly engaged in making Vulnerability to climate change induced sea level rise.E 89034.559’ packets from waste paper and supplying to Salinity, excessive iron and arsenic in groundwater. the city area. Absence of community participation and institutional framework for water management.Chhoto Boyra This is an agriculture-dominated area near Acute water scarcity for drinking, washing and bathing,(Shashan Ghat) the KCC. Farmers are dependent on the and agricultural uses.GPS Coordinates: Mayur river for agriculture. A significant Conflict between urban and peri-urban water users.N 22049.521’ number of people in this area are engaged Vulnerability to flooding and water logging, and solidE 89031.765’ in business in the city. waste dumping in the Mayur river. Salinity, excess iron and arsenic contamination in groundwater. Absence of community participation and institutional framework for water management.
Key Research Questions• What are the contexts and dynamics of urbanization process in Khulna, and what are the roles of different actors in this process?• What are the impacts of urbanization on peri-urban areas? What are the linkages among urban, peri-urban and rural areas? What are the consequent changes in livelihood and social dynamics?• What are the history and current status of : o water availability in terms of source, quantity, quality, access, affordability and capacity? o urban wastewater discharge and solid waste management that in turn affect the peri-urban areas? o flooding, drainage congestion and water logging?• What are the impacts of climate change? What are the physical vulnerabilities?• What are the vulnerabilities of the communities to water insecurity stressors? What are the impacts on different capitals – social, institutional, etc.?• What are the strategies of the communities to reduce the vulnerabilities? How would the communities implement these strategies?