Nepal's history of water management_Dr. Hari Krishna Shreshtha


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Nepal’s History of Water Management Institutions: Is there a Role for them in Adapting to
Water Scarcity?
- Dr. Hari Krishna Shrestha, Nepal Engineering College

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Nepal's history of water management_Dr. Hari Krishna Shreshtha

  1. 1. NEPAL’S HISTORY OF WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS: IS THERE A ROLE FOR THEM IN ADAPTING TO WATER SCARCITY? Dr. Hari Krishna Shrestha Nepal Engineering College Water Security in Peri-Urban South Asia Inception Workshop August 16-20, 2010
  2. 2. WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS IN NEPAL Rajkulo Guthi for management (including maintenance) of Dug wells, Ponds, Springs and Stone spouts FMIS/WUA Dept. of Water Supply and Sewerage/WSC/KUKL Water Management for productive use: Nepal Electricity Authority (formerly Dept. of Electricity) Dept. of Electricity Development Department of Irrigation Dept. of Agriculture Dept. of Hydrology and Meteorology: Data collection and dissemination for better management of water resources Dept. of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management DWIDP for water management to reduce disaster risk
  3. 3. WATER SCARCITY – A GROWING PROBLEM Is water scarcity real? Per capita water needed for agriculture, industry, energy, environment: 1700 m3; less than 1000 m3 : water scarcity; less than 500 m3 : absolute scarcity (UNDP, 2006) Annual total water available: 207 km3 Per capita water availability in Nepal: 7600 m3 (so how come scarcity?) However, Per capita water consumption: less than 10% of availability Access to drinking water in Kathmandu: 57% wet, 32% dry (up to 89% nationwide) Load shedding due to water shortage in HEP plants Water requirement for irrigation: 50 km3 for all irrigable area (with current irrigation methods) Water available for irrigation: less than 20% of irrigable area Water scarcity despite water abundance? Economic water scarcity? Water shortage or water scarcity? Does it matter?
  4. 4. Regmi, A.R., 2007
  5. 5. Long water queue in a country with abundant water Boulton, C., 2010 Matthew R., 2007
  6. 6. Condom et. al , 2009
  7. 7. Condom et. al , 2009
  8. 8. Prospect of future water shortage Condom et. al , 2009
  9. 9. Shortage, yes. Scarcity, no (in national scale). However, too much water than needed in monsoon; too little water in dry season. Needed: better water management for right amount of water at right time at right location to avoid scarcity Adaptation strategy/roles for better management
  10. 10. ADAPTATION ROLES OF TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS Rajkulo: Rajkulo Community based management of the water flow and distribution in the canals for optimum use of water Guthi: re-model itself for adaptation to changed socio-cultural Guthi context; adaptation roles: conservation of existing infrastructures, better coordination with related line agencies for (a) preventing damage to existing infrastructure, (b) source protection, (c) optimizing water use Knowing the time and space variation of available water, relationship between recharge and discharge etc. needed for proper planning of water use schedule. Use of indigenous knowledge. FMIS: FMIS reservoir/pond construction, recharge gallery, management for augmentation of water supply in scarce time by groundwater, Multifunctional WUA: drought resistant variety agricultural produce WUA
  11. 11. GENERAL ADAPTATION ROLES FOR FORMAL- NEWER INSTITUTIONS Investment in management and efficiency Promotion of community water management Improvement of water management Proper value of water Promotion of water recycling Storage capacity expansion Improved crop planning PPP of local water utilities
  12. 12. INSTITUTIONS SPECIFIC ADAPTATION ROLES HIGHEST (96%) USE OF FRESHWATER IS IRRIGATION/AGRICULTURE Dept. of Agriculture: Water Demand management through: 1% ~ 30% Development of low water demanding crops Technology development: promotion of greenhouse based production Use of vertical space Development of better planting techniques Training and involvement of farmers in pre- and post-harvesting techniques Development of less water demanding food processing techniques Use of wetlands and waste lands for producing improved grass for cattle Weed control without flood irrigation Weed resistant crop variety Promotion of soil coverage with plastic film to reduce soil moisture evaporation and weed control Promotion of zero-till growing method Use of mulch for water conservation
  13. 13. Dept. of Irrigation 1% ~ 30% Development and promotion of more efficient irrigation techniques Promotion of drip irrigation Community based irrigation management Community/farmer-researcher (2-way) training on better use of water Waste water/grey water irrigation Bubble Irrigation “More from Less” Campaign Promote reduction in water leakage from irrigation canals
  14. 14. ADAPTATION ROLES FOR NEWER INSTITUTIONS BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE NEEDED TO REDUCE WATER MISUSE DWSS/WSSC/KUKL: Reducing leakage (technical and non-technical) Promotion of motion detecting and/or time sensitive taps/faucets Promotion of household rainwater harvesting Municipality based rainwater use Artificial recharge galleries/fields along river banks and designated areas: use of flood plains/ecotones as groundwater recharge area Cascade of reservoirs Differential/Equitable water tariff Promotion of small scale water treatment plants: personal or community ownership of plants Less water demanding sanitation techniques Promotion of Ecosan Toilets
  15. 15. Merz et. al. 2003 Merz et. al. 2003
  16. 16. ISRAEL EXPERIENCE Israel has a 75 percent water-recycling rate, making it the world's number one water recycler. The second-largest water recycler is Spain, with a rate of 12 percent. The Israeli-invented drip irrigation system has helped achieve one of the highest water efficiency rates in the world. The world's largest Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant is in Israel, producing 100 million m3 at the cost of approximately $0.52 per m3 of water, making it also the most-cost efficient plant of its kind. Israel creates close to 25 percent of its consumed water. The country's total water consumption has remained the same since the 1960, despite a growing population, increasing water requirements, and growing agricultural production. Israel has demonstrated the ability to adapt economically and socially to overcome many of water scarcity issues. Arlosoroff, S. 2009
  17. 17. DSCWM Soil conservation practices to be linked to income generation for farmers Right of way as community based productive land for sustainability of right of way along highways
  18. 18. DHM Development of better long term weather prediction methodology and sharing the information with the farmers for better selection of the crops based on expected water availability Better estimation technology for snow melt runoff and sharing of information with farmers and hydropower developers in March/April for better selection of crops/turbine operation based on expected water availability in the streams
  19. 19. Glacial lakes as part of a solution to the water scarcity problem rather than part of a problem related to GLOF Each of the adaptation role will play a small role in solving water shortage problem. Thank you.