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Kathmandu's water supply operators_Mr. Dibesh Shrestha

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Kathmandu’s Water Supply Operators: Rural-Urban Water Transfers as an Answer to the City’s
Water Deficit- Mr. Dibesh Shrestha, Nepal Engineering College

Kathmandu's water supply operators_Mr. Dibesh Shrestha

  1. 1. Water Security in Peri-Urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanisation Inception Workshop , August 16, 2010 Presentation on PRIVATE WATER TANKER OPERATORS IN KATHMANDU: ANALYSIS OF WATER TRANSFER AND SERVICES By: Dibesh Shrestha, iWRM 2nd Year Nepal Engineering College Supervisor: Prof. Ashutosh Shukla Nepal Engineering College Source: Field Visit (2009)
  2. 2. Setting the background: Water Supply in Kathmandu KUKL piped supply Traditional Supply Dhunge dhara Source: Personal Collection,2009 Source: Personal Collection,2009 Individual Supply Tube wells Water Market: Source: Personal Collection,2009 Water Tankers Source: Field Visit, 2009
  3. 3. Kathmandu and Emergence of private water tankers • Increasing urban population • Water shortage • Water demand= 280 MLD (KUKL, 2009a) • Moench and Janakarajan (2006): Emergence of water market due to gap left by combined services of traditional sources and piped water supply
  4. 4. Research objectives: • To provide insight into various locations of water sources, extraction mechanisms, volume of water extraction and the transactions (volume of water and financial) involved in the water tanker based water market • To analyse the role of private water tanker operators in terms of the services provided by them in addressing the water scarcity in Kathmandu
  5. 5. Methodology • Field visits and observations • Semi-structured interviews with Well owners, private tankers owners, tanker drivers Officials of NWSC, KUKL Functionaries of water tanker entrepreneurs' association Field Interview, 2009 • Water sampling and testing of water quality from different sources at five locations of water extraction
  6. 6. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Sources of water and their locations • Locations: peri- Manamaiju VDC urban areas, some in the Bus park urban areas Balaju Jorpati VDC • Water: Ground water (dug Gothatar VDC wells, borings) and Surface Matatirtha VDC water (stream and Chobar springs) Source: Field study, 2009 (Locations plotted on map of Kathmandu)
  7. 7. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Tanker Truck size • Small tanker trucks (5000, 6000 and 7000 litres capacity) (6000 litres in general) • Large tanker trucks (12000 litres capacity)
  8. 8. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water Extraction and Treatment Mechanisms • Water extraction in Chobar (Surface Water) Source: Field Visit, 2009
  9. 9. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water Extraction and Treatment Mechanisms • Water extraction in Jorpati (Ground Water) Source: Field Visit, 2009
  10. 10. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water Extraction and Treatment Mechanisms • Water extraction in Matatirtha (Ground Water) Source: Field Visit, 2009
  11. 11. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water Extraction and Treatment Mechanisms • Water extraction in Baikhu (Surface Water) ( Water is directly loaded) Source: Field Visit, 2009
  12. 12. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Volume of water extraction • Dry season (peak) >> mid of January to mid of June • Off-peak period >> rest of the year • 600-700 water tankers running in Kathmandu on a daily basis under more than 200 entrepreneurs • 25.5 MLD of water supply by private tankers in dry season (10,000 litres, 6 trips per day) • 8 MLD of water supply by private tankers in off-peak season (10,000 litres, 2 trips per day)
  13. 13. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Volume of water extraction Source: Field Visits and Interviews, 2009 *= Weightage given to large and small tankers on the basis on number of trips they make from the source L= Large tanker trucks of 12,000 litres and S= Small tanker trucks of 6,000 litres, AV=Average tanker capacity=10,000 litres
  14. 14. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Volume of water extraction Source: Field Visits and Interviews, 2009 * = Weightage given to large and small tankers on the basis on number of trips they make from the source L= Large tanker trucks of 12,000 litres and S= Small tanker trucks of 6,000 litres, AV=Average tanker capacity=10,000 litres
  15. 15. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Volume of water extraction Comparison: Source: Moench (2001), Moench and Janakarajan (2006), Field Study (2009) and KUKL (2009a)
  16. 16. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Cost • 6,000 litres tanker costs NRs. 1200 (NRs 0.2 /litre) • 12,000 litres tanker costs NRs. 2000 (NRs 0.17 /litre) • NRs 0.183 per litre on average • (1 USD= NRS.70)
  17. 17. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Cost • Financial transaction Financial transaction of Private Tanker based market is 4.5 times higher than KUKL’ s annual expenditure for 2007/08
  18. 18. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water distribution Water distribution locations • Consumers: Private and value residents, hotels, restaurants, schools, construction works, pharmaceutical industries, soft drink manufacturers Source: Field Study, 2009 (Location and Value of distribution plotted on map of Kathmandu)
  19. 19. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water Quality of Water tanker supplies • Water quality tests on eight water samples collected from five different locations viz. Jorpati, Matatirtha VDC, Balaju, Baikhu and Chobar • Samples derived before loading the water to the tanker trucks or just after Collection of water sample at Matatirtha VDC, 2009 loading of water
  20. 20. Features of Tanker Based Water Market in Kathmandu: Water Quality of Water tanker supplies • Parameters tested: pH, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride, Ammonia, Nitrate, Iron, Manganese, Arsenic, Total Coliform, E. coli • Test results: Few cases of presence of Ammonia, Iron and Manganese beyond permissible limits No Arsenic All sources except deep boring at Balaju showed contamination with coliforms. Similarly, E.Coli was detected at all locations except in the deep boring at Balaju E.coli relates to possible health consequences, hence, potential health risk associated to tanker based supply
  21. 21. Trend of Water Tanker Operation in Kathmandu Increase in the number of water tanker entrepreneurs over past four years Source: Field study, 2009 (based on records of Valley Drinking Water Tanker Entrepreneurs Association’s records as of October 2009))
  22. 22. Conclusion • Water supply in Kathmandu is varied and uncertain • Market is offering solution in the form of water tanker supplies to residents of Kathmandu • Private water tankers at present supply significant amount of water to meet the demand of Kathmandu • High financial transaction transactions associated to tanker water supply (4.5 times higher than KUKL’ s annual expenditure for 2007/08) • Presence of E.coli and quality concern
  23. 23. Linking to Water Security in Kathmandu • Hydrological cycle in Kathmandu: Growing uncertain in recent years • GW extraction in Peri-urban and Urban areas: Exploiting the finite resource • Growing urban–population and area: Increasing water Source: Shrestha, 2010 demand and decreasing GW recharge zone • Combination of all these: ?? Water Security ??
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention.

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