Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum:                            RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Desakota and “Toad’s Eye Scie...
RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




• Picture of truck/diesel pump




            Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Conceptual Framework of Interlinkages


         Political Economy                      Global E...
Desakota: the co-penetration                        RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

of rural and urban systems



              ...
Desakota Criteria                                                                     RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




• Great...
Desakota Drivers                                       RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




• Improved physical access through bas...
Desakota Drivers:                                                                                   RURAL   DESAKOTA      ...
Knowledge Systems                                           RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




• Disjuncture between ‘high’ scie...
Points of Entry for Change                             RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




• Unpacking and refining conceptual
  ...
Ecosystems and Desakota                                            RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




• Expanding desakota incre...
Ecosystems and Desakota                                        RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Vegetation and Land Cover Change
...
Ecosystems and Desakota                                                                                    RURAL       DES...
Ecosystems and Desakota                                            RURAL    DESAKOTA   URBAN

Land use, water stores and f...
Ecosystems and Desakota                                        RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Land use, water stores and flow r...
Ecosystems and Desakota                                         RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Water-related disease

• Some de...
Ecosystems: Research Needs                                                               RURAL   DESAKOTA    URBAN




•  ...
Ecosystems and Desakota:                                                          RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Institutions
 ...
Institutions: research needs                                          RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




  Institutions:
   – Em...
Desakota, Poverty and ES                                                                                          RURAL   ...
Desakota, Poverty and ES                                         RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




  Decreased access to
    pr...
Health and Disaster Risks                                                                           RURAL   DESAKOTA   URB...
Desakota, Poverty and ES:                                                     RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN

Research Issues
  ...
Desakota, ES and Poverty                              RURAL   DESAKOTA   URBAN




             Re-imagining the Rural-Urb...
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Desakota_Dr. Dipak Gyawali

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Desakota: The Concept and Tool for Urban Environmental Planning-
Mr. Dipak Gyawali, Interdisciplinary Analysts, Kathmandu

Desakota_Dr. Dipak Gyawali

  1. 1. Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum: RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Desakota and “Toad’s Eye Science” as Conceptual Tools Dipak Gyawali NEC SACIWaters Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum 16 August 2010 Inception Workshop, Kathmandu.
  2. 2. RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • Picture of truck/diesel pump Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  3. 3. RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Conceptual Framework of Interlinkages Political Economy Global Envirnmental Change (GEC) - Migration - Consumerism - Climate change - Industrialisation - Water availability and quality - Communication - Land Degradation - Urbanisation - Biodiversity Social DESAKOTA PHENOMENON Natural Science Science Poverty ? Water-based Ecosystem Services - 1 $ per day - Access - Provisioning - Entitlement - Regulating Supporting - Cultural/ Aesthetics Output Evidence based gaps and research question Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  4. 4. Desakota: the co-penetration RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN of rural and urban systems Urban Desakota Rural Region Urban Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  5. 5. Desakota Criteria RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • Greater connectivity – physical, electronic, cultural. – This connectivity contributes to time-space collapse. • Greater penetration of cash economy with remnants of reciprocity mechanisms on the decline. – Increasing market linkages are facilitating the predominance of a cash economy over reciprocity mechanisms, with much of it in the informal sector rather than the formal. • Mixed livelihoods drawing upon local and non-local service and manufacturing opportunities. – Household income baskets contain a mix of rural and urban characteristics. • Greater diffusion of modern production and resource extractive technologies. – Modern technologies are gaining predominance over conventional and traditional means of resource harvesting or harnessing, with implications on demands and pressures on natural resources. • Tensions between formal and informal and traditional institutions for resource management. – Institutionally, desakota regions are often characterized by a poorly linked mix of formal institutions, declining or evolving traditional institutions and emergent informal institutions filling the gaps and often encroaching across enclave boundaries. Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  6. 6. Desakota Drivers RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • Improved physical access through basic transportation • Easy communication flow • Changing demography through in- and out- migration • Increased conflicts, both low-intensity and violent • Climate change inducing greater uncertainty in the other four Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  7. 7. Desakota Drivers: RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Regional Comparison South Asia China Sub-Saharan Africa Amazon-Andes Distinguishing Strong state and civil Transition to market Inequality and Connection to global determinant of society, economy instability markets and desakota developmentalism, government Population densities development policy Urbanisation trend Moderate growth Rapid growth Rapid growth Highly urbanised Economic driver Government Rural industrialisation Uneven, enclave High value agriculture, sponsored development service economy modernisation, industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation Institutional context Interdependent formal Shift from communal Large informal sector Parallel formal and and informal systems to private land informal systems management, State policy Social impacts Communal resource Urban-rural income Households under Gendered inequality in management under gap increasing stress wages stress. Widening income gap Infrastructure driver Road network, Enclave Communications Road network communications industrialisation technology technology Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  8. 8. Knowledge Systems RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • Disjuncture between ‘high’ science used by global decision- makers and ‘low’ science coming from tradition and everyday experience and interactions • Need for a communication strategy between global and local decision-making to mutually feed research needs • Basis for projecting future from historical probabilities are evaporating, requiring new approaches that incorporate higher levels of uncertainty, both physical and social • Social sciences face the challenge of coping with new categories and concepts beyond past dichotomies such as ‘rural’/’urban’ or ‘formal’/’informal’ divide • Adaptive learning between locally and globally generated knowledges Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  9. 9. Points of Entry for Change RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • Unpacking and refining conceptual frameworks • Developing new data metrics that allow for dialogue between different levels and different social solidarities • Interdisciplinary research • Research developing new methodologies and tools Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  10. 10. Ecosystems and Desakota RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • Expanding desakota increases pressures and demands on water- based ecosystems – Land use change – Change in water flow and storage • Shift in the importance of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services • Increased dependency on geographically distant ecosystems • Many environmental problems exacerbated by climate change • Change in resource use has shown some positive impacts Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  11. 11. Ecosystems and Desakota RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Vegetation and Land Cover Change • Interactions between atmosphere, climate and land cover – Human induced changes in vegetation cover – Climatic feedbacks (e.g. Amazon) • Land use change – Changes associated with desakota (Clearance of natural vegetation) – Need to identify critical thresholds and impact of landscape mosaics Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  12. 12. Ecosystems and Desakota RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Land use, water stores and flow regimes • Water storage Example: Aquifer mining in Balochistan, Pakistan – Climate-induced 0 – Human-induced -2 -4 Groundwater Decline (m) -6 -8 -10 Pischin Mastung -12 -14 -16 -18 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  13. 13. Ecosystems and Desakota RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Land use, water stores and flow regimes • River flow regimes – Impact of changes on littoral, riparian and aquatic ecosystems – Connectivity between surface water, groundwater and dependent ecosystems (Stanford 1998) Example: Flooding in Nepal Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  14. 14. Ecosystems and Desakota RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Land use, water stores and flow regimes • Water quality – Desakota development associated with declines in water quality from dual pressures on water-based ecosystems – Poor water quality is having health impacts in some desakota areas – Need for development of buffer areas to mitigate against this Example: waste disposal in Nepal Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  15. 15. Ecosystems and Desakota RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Water-related disease • Some desakota characteristics (poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water) understood • Indirect impacts (land use pressure) and climate impacts less understood • Scientific controversy Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  16. 16. Ecosystems: Research Needs RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN • A broad understanding of natural system function is needed, which considers linkages between climate, ecology and hydrology • Further research into the identification of critical thresholds in natural systems is needed, which considers indicators and investigates linkages across scales • Specific research needs: – Interactions between land cover and climate under desakota pressures – Inclusion of such processes in climate change models – The role of desakota for increasing energy consumption, the impact on climate and the need for appropriate alternative ‘green’ technologies – River flow regime characterisation, which considers riparian-surface water-groundwater connectivity – Small scale hydrological, geomorphological and ecological response to global climate change (including water-borne disease) – The impact of desakota development on water ecosystem processes and water-borne disease – The development of management strategies to mitigate against any adverse impacts Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  17. 17. Ecosystems and Desakota: RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Institutions Institutional challenge: Example: - Rapid, informal development Balochistan, Pakistan - Changing livelihoods, less RURAL URBAN RURAL dependency on proximate Pishin Quetta Mastung ecosystem services - Lack of ‘reach’ of existing institutions - Growth of informal markets for provisioning services, but not on management Urban Influence Rural Influence - Locational disjuncture between “ecosystem” itself and service it provides Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  18. 18. Institutions: research needs RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Institutions: – Empirical investigation of the impact of institutional transitions in desakota areas, and how this has impacted access to resources from vulnerable populations – Development of strategies, institutions, incentives for mediating conflicting demands and pressures on resource base, and for moderating pollution and maintaining flow and water quality regimes for basic water services – Investigation of new institutional models which move beyond community- or government-based water and resource management in desakota areas Economic analysis: – Improved approaches for estimating the benefits of water-based ecosystem services, which includes probabilistic estimates – Innovative approaches for valuing ecosystem services beyond PES or polluter- pays principles Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  19. 19. Desakota, Poverty and ES RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Understanding poverty • Changing concepts of who is Rupees (in billion) Remittance income considered “poor” • Understanding factors that contribute 70 people to move in and out of poverty 60 • Limitations of existing poverty 50 measures 40 • offers opportunities for moving out 30 of poverty, 20 • Mobility, diversified livelihoods, non- farm employment 10 • Transport, access to markets 0 1995 1998 2002 2004 • Communication and knowledge of markets, technologies Year Worker's remittance FDI Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  20. 20. Desakota, Poverty and ES RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Decreased access to provisioning services • Direct dependency threatened (decreasing quality, quantity, less secure tenure) • Increasing reliance on market institutions (implications for poor?) Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  21. 21. Health and Disaster Risks RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Increasing exposure to health, disaster risks • Quality of regulating services decreases – flood control, disease regulation, filtering of pollutants • Increasing vulnerabilities – HIV/AIDS, lack of tenure, weak political organization Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  22. 22. Desakota, Poverty and ES: RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Research Issues – Identifying how desakota may change the relationship between ecosystem services and poverty (e.g. from provisioning to regulating services; exposure to environmental extremes, health risks; dependencies within desakota livelihood systems on geographically distant ecosystem services). What are factors contributing to vulnerability of the poor? – Investigate how desakota may provide new opportunities, constraints and vulnerabilities for particular social groups and develop actions/policies which can be taken to address these inequities – Develop more holistic indicators of poverty and consider the factors affecting why people move in and out of poverty – Understand role of (and access by poor to) secondary and tertiary (market) institutions for provisioning of water, food and fodder in desakota areas – Investigate strategies of collective action by poor, and enabling factors, that have enhanced access to quality ecosystem services in desakota contexts (e.g. Gujarat) Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum
  23. 23. Desakota, ES and Poverty RURAL DESAKOTA URBAN Re-imagining the Rural-Urban Continuum

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