Climate Proofing: Role of Watershed and tank management in Andhra Pradesh N L N Reddy Modern Architects of Rural India
Modern Architects for Rural India• An NGO involved in grassroots innovation and policy advocacy since 1988• Working domains – Agriculture – Watershed Development – Water and sanitation – Micro-finance and livelihoods – Health and education• Managed by skilled and experienced professionals• Involved in nurturing networks and Civil society engagement in policy advocacy
MARI & climate change– Mitigation options in the sector of water, agriculture, forest and other land uses– Vulnerability and adaptation to CC (livelihood promotion, risk reduction, natural resource governance)
The ClimateClimate is theaverage of weatherover time.Climate tells us what weather is usually like in agiven place.
What is climate variability ? “Climate variability” refers to changes in climate from one year to another. It can be caused by changes in ocean conditions far away, which can affect climate all over the world(for ex: El Niño) Climate variability is natural and occurs on a regular basis.
What is climate change ?Climate change is the change in climate over a time period from 10 to 100s of years.Climate change involves both natural changes and changes caused by people.
Sectoral emissions of GHG in India CO2 CH4 N2 O Industrial All energy processIndustrial LULUCF 2% Energy 5% 16% process 7% 13% Waste 4% Waste 6% Energy 85% Agriculture 78% Agriculture 84%
Climate Change: Impact on AgricultureRise in Carbon Positively affects crop growth, reduced transpiration; increases waterDioxide use efficiency. Speeds up nitrogen fixation process in legumes.Rise in Increases respiration rate in plants, reduces net growth & yieldTemperature Hastens maturation and reduces yields More transpiration causes moisture stress Drying of soil, loss of soil moisture More irrigation requirements Fastens decomposition of soil organic matter Hastens nutrient cycles, effect fertility, cost towards fertilizers increases More pests & disease problem in warmer climateVariability in Frequent droughtsRainfall Pattern Uneven rainfall distribution, frequent dry spells Heavy and untimely down pouring Decrease in number of rainy days Creates confusion in taking up of Agricultural practices. Yield loss and investment loss.Altering Deepening of water tableGroundwater More energy required to pump waterStatus Low soil moisture causes moisture stress More salinization due to deepening of water table
Mitigation/AdaptationMitigation Long-term approach •Watershed development program (reduces soil erosion and soil loss, water harvesting, increase in irrigation area) •Tank rehabilitation •Clean Development Mechanism – CDM •The plantation program (Contributes towards carbon sequestration)Adaptation Adaptation is a short-term approachMARI has more than one and half decades of watershed development and tankrehabilitationImportant interventions in rain-fed areas Conserving soil and water use natural resources productively Improve natural resource-based livelihoods.Emphasis was on ecological restoration and on strengthening rural livelihoodsThough relevant to mitigate and adapt to Climate change, redefining processes andpractices are required
Watershed Development Watershed programmes have been implemented since 1990s•Watershed programme as a mitigation strategy – Land development, water harvesting, increase in irrigation area, and in some cases increase in cropping intensity – Soil and water conservation structures, water harvesting greatly reduces soil erosion and soil loss. The plantation program greatly contributes towards carbon sequestration.•Land use based on land capability – Water erosion is the main cause for land degradation under rain-fed conditions – Average soil organic carbon sequestration possible through restoration of degraded soils in India is 7.20-9.82 Tg/Cy•In situ moisture conservation – Protects crop from delayed rains – Ensures crop survival
Water erosion is the main cause for Land degradation under rainfed conditionsSoil Type Carbon emissionsTotal soil erosion in India 2.98 Pg sediments / yearTotal carbon loss at 8-12 g/kg soil 23.8-35.8 C Tg/ yearC emission at 20% of displaced C 4.8- 7.2 Tg C/ y
Impact of Land TreatmentImpact of Land Treatment-Stylo Grass on Form Bund Impact of Land Treatment-Form pond Impact of Land Treatment- Impact of Land Treatment-CCT Sunken pond
In-situ conservation practices Conservation furrow-retains about 37% additional soil moisture compared to farmers’ practice-better plant growth and higher yields by about 17% Castor + Pigeonpea Groundnut
Agriculture Production systems Scope for interventions Potential for Mitigation/ AdaptationCultivation of green manure crops and Soil moisture retention - droughtploughing into soil. proofing. Reduced chemical fertilizer consumption. Soil carbon improvement.Conservation agriculture: Production Carbon sequestration rate (t ha-1 y-1) insystems surface soil (0-20 cm) in different rain- fed production systems in IndiaSoil amendments to correct soil nutrient Crop specific and soil specificdeficiencies. deficiencies application only . Avoiding pollution from unnecessary application of fertilizers.Avoid burning of agricultural waste. Soil carbon improvement.Vermi-compost application. Saving on account of fossil fuel based fertilizers
Model Compost preparationLow dung to biomass ratio for more nutrition
Water resourcesRainwater harvesting On-farm water harvestingand recycling Watershed programme as a mitigation strategy Protected irrigation leads to additional yieldsMicro irrigation Water use efficiencyEfficient use of SRI – a water saving method relevant for SA countriesirrigation water Management practices hold key for mitigation. E.g.: CH4 emission from flooded rice CH4 emission can be reduced 30% through water management, 20% by cultural practices and 20% nutrient management.Optimal crop water Water use efficiencyuse. Less release of GHG from paddy fieldsRecharge structures in the influence zone of bore wells for avoiding bore well drying up
Water pumping out of the bore well WAT Farm pond with full of water RECHARGE WELL
EnergyCapacitors for Ground water Energy savingpumping efficiencyEnergy efficient stoves for cooking Energy saving, avoided tree fellingPromoting Gobar gas Energy saving, avoided tree fellingEnergy efficient lamps Energy savingEnergy awareness and audit Energy savingEnergy efficiency in agriculture and Zero-Tillage : improved productivityirrigation at less cost Save water and energy
Zero-TillageImproved Productivity at Less Cost Economic benefits of using zero tillage technology from 2000 to 2004Year Area Savings (Rs. in (million ha) million)2000-01 0.05 1252001-02 0.2 5002002-03 0.3 7502003-04 1.0 2500Total (2000-2004) 3875 - - Source: NATP, Irrigated Ecosystem
Fodder and LivestockEfficient use of fodder Reducing wastage inby using chaff cutters fodderIncreasing area under Ensuring fodderfodder plots availability for cattleCattle breed Productive cattleimprovementStall feeding Prevention of top-soil erosion and Greenery development
Animal Husbandry …• Installation of Travis in all watersheds• Mobilization of subsidized schemes from the Animal Husbandry department• Development of fodder plots in all watersheds• Vaccination twice in a year in collaboration with AH Department
PlantationAgro-forestry Additional income from carbon sequestration – an added incentive to farmers Carbon storage in different Agri-silvicultural systems is 0.87 – 2.96 Mg/ha/year Carbon storage in silvi pasture systems is 0.80 -3.60 Mg/ha/year. Carbon storage in different sole tree plantations is 2.94- 5.75 Mg/ha/ yearBund planting Carbon fixationTank foreshore Carbon fixationplantationsEnergy plantations Carbon fixationHorticulture Carbon fixationpromotionNatural regeneration Carbon fixationprotection
Tanks are human made earthen reservoirs strategically located inthe dry upland areas to store rainwater. The system boundaries of tank irrigation include the catchments area, tank bed and command area.
Significance of Tanks in Semi-Arid zones of Telangana and Rayalaseema• Surface water Irrigation Drinking Water Well Irrigation• Ground Water Recharge• Source of Drinking Water & Fodder for livestock.• Fisheries Production.• Support for various other livelihoods.• Silt Traps.• Crucial role in sustaining local eco-system.• Tanks are inseparable from the culture of the people.
Restoration of tanks requires massive earthwork which creates great potential for wage employment
Strategic initiatives User Infrastructure Resource Base User rights ProductivityCommand Tank system Water storage Live storage SRI, crop-waterFarmers capacity Involving in decision budgeting, etc related to water releasesCatchment Soil treatment Plantation Right on silt Application of silt andfarmers crop managementFisher Ponds within a tank for Percolation tanks Dead storage Strengthening FCS,community seed development desiltation and weed Involving in decisions investment removal related to water Support, seed releases developmentLivestock Dugout ponds Percolation tanks Dead storage More grazing areasrearers Plantations and Usufruct right on fodder cultivation trees in tank bed and foreshoreWage earners - Plantation on tank Priority to engage Generation of wage bund manual labour in tank employment (silt rehabilitation works excavation) Usufruct rights on plantation in tank system
Impact created (MARI)• Proved significance of tanks’ restoration in resolving crisis of water and employment.• Created more than 1 million cu.m. of additional storage capacity.• Recharged 2500 tube wells; and revived 980 dried up wells• Generated 0.51 million days of employment, which arrested migration of 4500 families• Assured drinking water for human and animal population• Soil fertility improved in 18000 ha with tank silt application• Strengthened 108 tank management institutions• Successful demonstration has influenced government to take up major initiatives for revival of tanks.
Lessons Learnt• Interventions have enhanced resilience of local communities through building up livelihood assets• Increased natural resource base (water, irrigated crop & pasture land) leading to higher income and better food security• Building response capacity: Investment in human capital resulted in enhanced capacity of community for NRM mgt.• Need to explicitly identify and build in measures focusing on ability to manage climate risks (and where applicable: confronting impacts of CC) Example: Timely access to weather information, option sets, access to knowledge and information
Lessons learnt (contd…)• Creation/strengthening of local institutions to improve planning and management skills leads to continuity, ability to leverage external resources and creation of knowledge• Strong local institutions that continue beyond project periods are seen as a main driver for managing climate risks