Timeline of Performance Enhancing Drugs<br />By,<br />Karlee Ferris<br />1889 French physician Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, claims to feel younger form extracting testicular fluid from dogs and guinea pigs and injecting it into himself and announces it at a scientific meeting in Paris.1904 St. Louis Olympics marathon winner Thomas Hicks (USA) is given strychnine and brandy during the race.<br />1890<br />1900<br />1910<br />1920<br />1930<br />1935 German scientists, develop anabolic steroids as a way to treat hypogonadism -- testosterone deficiency.<br />19401940-1945 Nazis test anabolic steroids on prisoners, Gestapos and Hitler himself. Testosterone is used on soldiers to create aggression.<br />1945-1947 To help reverse wasting effect of WWII and concentration camp imprisonment anabolic steroids are used.<br />1950<br />1954 The U.S.S.R. begins to dominate the sport of power lifting, a Soviet team doctor allegedly tells of his team's use of testosterone injections to U.S. weightlifting doctor.<br />1958 Anabolic steroid -- methandrostenolone -- is released by Ciba Pharmaceuticals under the name Dianabol.<br />1960<br />1960 Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen crashes during the road race at the Rome Olympics after taking a stimulant. He dies from a fractured skull.<br />1960 Sports Illustrated publishes an article revealing the use of amphetamines ("
), tranquilizers, cocaine and other drugs in elite sports.<br />1967 A British cyclist’s death from amphetamines spurs the Tour de France to institute doping controls.<br />1969 Sports Illustrated makes an investigation about performance-enhancing drugs in sports. Sources predict that the use of such drugs will eventually explode into an epidemic.<br />1970<br />1972 The International Olympic Committee begins full-scale drug testing at the Olympics<br />1976 The International Olympic Committee adds anabolic steroids to its banned list.<br />1976 The Olympic athletes are tested for the first time for anabolic steroids at the Montreal Olympics.<br />19801983 The gene for human erythropoietin (EPO) is cloned.<br />1983 The governing body of the Pan Am Games in Caracas strips 2medals from athletes for testing positive for anabolic steroids.<br />1985 HGH, a synthetic human growth hormone, is produced.<br />1988 Sprinter Ben Johnson tests positive for an anabolic steroid after winning the 100 meters in a world-record time. He is stripped of his medal, banned for two years and had is time deleted for testing positive.<br />19901990 The National Football League institutes a year-round, random steroid testing program.<br />1990 The Anabolic Steroids Control Act is introduced by Congress. It classifies steroids as a schedule III controlled substance, for which trafficking is now a felony.<br />1991 Twenty former East German coaches admit to administering anabolic steroids to some of their swimmers.<br />1993 The Association of Tennis Professionals, the Women's Tennis Association and the International Tennis Federation create an anti-doping program.<br />1998 Vials of EPO are discovered in a French Festina team car at the Tour de France. Several riders and team support crew are charged with doping. They were suspended.<br />1998 St. Louis Cardinals slugger Mark McGwire admits using androstenedione.<br />1999 The NBA adds steroids to its list of banned substances<br />1999 The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), an independent agency, is formed through the IOC.<br />20002000 Urinalysis tests are improved to detect EPO, but blood doping undetectable. EPO testing is implemented in Sydney Olympics<br />2000 The U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) begins operations<br />2002 MLB does not have a testing for steroids but if more than 5% of results from the anonymous tests are positive they will start formal testing and penalties the following year<br />2003-2004 Government agents raid the Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative (BALCO). And several athletes get subpoenaed for testing.<br />2003 The International Olympic Committee adds THG to its list of banned substances.<br />2004 MLB begins mandatory steroid testing for players.<br />2004 A record 24 athletes are ousted for drug-related violations at the Athens Olympics.<br />2005 MLB cracks down on drug testing and Major leaguers — including Canseco, Rafael Palmeiro, Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa — testify before a congressional committee investigating steroid use.<br />2005 The NHL establishes a drug-testing policy for performance-enhancing substances.<br />2006 Tour de France winner, U.S. cyclist Floyd Landis tests positive for an illegal testosterone ratio.<br />2007 The NFL and its players union announced changes to toughen its steroid policy<br />2007 International Olympic Committee strips 5 medals from athlete for testing positive.<br />