More books – greater likelihood of internet connection, own bedroom, library use, parents more likely to read at bedtime, more likely to re read stories Also – a more detailed analysis of two schools in England from different socio economic areas.
Some evidence that teachers don’t have enough time to keep themselves up to date with current quality children’s literature – borne out in the English study
Plus – choosing and using fiction and non-fiction 3 – 11
Going to give you a flavour of the pack for children – some of the activities
The pack also contains a ppt that orientates children to the different participating countries and gives them the context of the project
Hand out – grids and % charts Compare predictions with actual resultsLook at your own countries results – why might your results be as they are? You might like to look at the gender splits….this is another activity for children but no time now.
This piece of data was quite surprising with large numbers across all countries reporting that they never had a bedtime story. What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school Language in Society (1982), 11:49-76 Cambridge University PressShirley Brice Heath undertook a study in the US of three contrasting communities’ literacy practices and looked at the sorts of oral language that developed around these ‘events’.
Look at the Pie charts – what do they tell you. Are there any links you could make between how much children love reading and how much they hear stories read aloud?
Look at the data on how long children spend reading – any surprises – how does it match your own experiences? Make links to how much children loved to read.Tell them, don’t do it - What about where you read….look at data and children’s places.
Take feedback from the discussions. Compare diamond 9s
Hand out results …. There are questions on the results chartsRecommendations
They are all interrelated e.g. making connections and inference
Activating prior knowledge: What is a Tinderbox? Encourage children to reflect on what a Tinderbox might be – this should not be a search for ‘the right answer’ in the first instance but a chance for children to consider possibilities based on their prior knowledge and understanding (part of the background knowledge)I wonder what a tinderbox is doing in this story? Activating prior knowledge: Ask children if they know of any other stories by this author. If they do ask children to use this knowledge to think about what this story might be about based on the front cover and title.
Predicting/hypothesising: Play bookzips (Cremin, 2009). Imagine that the book has a zip around it so that it can’t be opened. Based on the information that you have, the cover, the title, the author, the blurb on the back predict what the plot might be about; who the main character might be – if he/she is a hero or a villain; what the theme of the book might be etc.
Read the first page – model the sorts of questions in your head model how you change you mind about things as you add more information. Other ways of using the pictures Read the next page – first sentence only (page 3) but don’t show the picture. VisualiserIn pairs – freeze frame. Look at some and ask why they are as they are standing as they are – model – ‘to me that means’ Ask for questions….what questions do you have? This is what the good reader does unconsciously - part of making the mental image – we hook the information we have at that point into our mind’ schema that it selects as the most appropriate at that point. Read next sentence – do you want to change your freeze frame? Questions….Next sentence – change freeze frame? Questions….Next sentence – change and questions? Questions…..Look at questions – they are the footprints of our thinking as skilled readers…….which questions have been answered, what answers do we think we still have unanswered – predict answers and how you know, based on your prior knowledge Could do a 30 sec improvisation - what next OR predict the freeze frame the end of the story …….
Tell the story – summarise until page beginning – The witch pulled him up……mention soundscapes at this point
Shoe of hands – was he wrong to kill the witchSpeed sharing – first in pairs 1 minute – think of all the reasons why he should not have cut off the witches head (continue to use your predication about the characters) 1 minute in pairs reasons why it was the wrong thing to do. 2 circles of equal number. Inner circle arguing for – outer circle argue against MODEL at the front demonstrating how you make a point but respond to the point made At end ….. Another show of hands – room moving – go to one side of room if you think he was wrong – during one minute you can persuade a many people as pos to come with you. Play yes, no, why. Give children some statements about the characters, plot or setting. Include statements that are open to discussion and debate e.g. the solider is a cruel and heartless man – must be able to justify this by explaining why. This can be played considering the language of the text as well e.g. Do you like the way the soldier is described? Is there enough detail about the princess for you to imagine what she looks like? Do this sentence by sentence – next page read….it was a splendid town ….. Do you think he was right to spend all the money like this – yes no why OR This is a long sentence, do you think it is too long – yes no whyThe servant who had to clean his boots – do you think the servant suspected something was up – yes, no, why OR do you think the author was trying to introduce some doubts about what might happen to this character? – yes. No why etc
Police report – key to summarising is know why you are summarising – police report – on phone, 999 call - want the police to get there quick will be different to summarising and filling in a police report Really important for non-fiction comprehension.
Outline of the afternoon<br />Introduction and welcomes<br />Current children’s literature <br />The research findings, explored using the children’s CPD pack <br />Guðmundur Engilbertsson – lessons from Iceland: vocabulary teaching <br />Strategies and approaches for the classroom - the second CPD pack<br />
Introduction <br />A research project involving four countries – Iceland, England, Turkey and Spain<br />Over 6000 children and about 250 teachers completed an on line survey about their reading habits, preferences and details of the learning and teaching of children’s literature <br />About 150 children and their teachers talked to researchers in each country<br />
Aims of the Project<br /><ul><li>Cross national project based on a comparison of the use of children’s literature - reading, learning and teaching
Adaptation, development and dissemination of practical and effective pedagogical strategies
Encourage diversity and respect for cultural difference
Demonstrate the impact and sustainability of the research </li></li></ul><li>Why is it important? <br />OECD international comparisons<br />‘The evidence showed that the ‘will’ to read needed to be developed alongside the ‘skill’ to read because each feed off each other.’ (Lockwood, 2008:4) <br />‘being an enthusiastic reader’ and ‘being a frequent reader’ were more significant in terms of advantage than ‘having well-educated parents’ (OECD, 2002:3)<br />The more you read literature the better you get at reading (Krashen, 2004)<br />3. Philip Pullman ‘we are creating a generation of children who might be able to make the right noises when they see print, but who hate reading and feel nothing but hostility for literature.’ <br />Evidence that reading comprehension is ‘done’ but not taught <br />Snow and Sweet’s (2003) ‘the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning’. <br />
Some headlines…..<br />Across all participating countries<br /><ul><li>The number of family books in the home had a strong impact on a range of reading activities and attitudes
Socio economic background was a strong indicator of reading attitudes and activity
The decline of traditional literacy practices - the bedtime story (or equivalent)
Children and teachers’ perceptions of purposes of classroom reading activities are often different
English teachers selected books to use with children based on what they read as a child (73% - significantly more than other countries) </li></li></ul><li>What do we know about children’s literature – some good reads? <br />
Your favourites? <br /> Share your current favourite for the age group you teach – what are you reading to your class and what other books are you recommending? <br />Useful websites:<br />http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/schools_teaching<br />http://www.justimaginestorycentre.co.uk/<br />www.achuka.co.uk<br />www.booksforkeeps.co.uk<br />http://www.booktrustchildrensbooks.org.uk/Home<br />www.readingzone.com<br />www.sla.org.uk<br />http://bookahead.org.uk/<br />http://www.wordsforlife.org.uk/primary<br />http://www.cool-reads.co.uk/<br />
Sharing the findings – CPD packhttp://www.um.es/childrensliterature/site/<br />Aims of the CPD pack <br />To enable children to investigate how children’s literature is used and read in different countries <br />To encourage children to reflect on their own experiences and to link these to experiences of children in other parts of Europe<br />For children to offer their perspectives and recommendations for promoting reading and so valuing children as partners in the Comenius Project<br />
Your mission <br />This project is funded by <br />the European Union<br /> You have been selected as ‘Reading Ambassadors’ to offer your recommendations to governments on helping children become interested and effective readers who read for pleasure and purpose. <br />
Can you locate the four countries involved? Iceland, Spain, Turkey and England <br /> Children and their teachers completed a survey about reading and literature in four cities in each of the four countries. <br /><ul><li>Murica, Spain
Bristol, England </li></li></ul><li>Activity 1 <br />What sort of reader would you say you are? <br />I love to read.<br />It’s okay to read.<br />I don’t like reading. <br />Can you predict the country that had the highest percentage of children who said ‘I love to read’?<br />
Reading ambassador recommendations <br /> Governments are trying to increase the number of children who say they ‘love reading’ as research shows that if you love reading, you read more and if you read more, you get better at reading. Governments also know there are other benefits to reading, including developing a person’s understanding of the world and problems and issues in the world as well as preparing someone to use their reading in the jobs they will do in the future and as a way to relax. <br /> What are you recommendations for government. How can they increase the number of children that say they ‘love’ to read. <br />
Activity 2The bedtime story and being read to at school<br /> Children were asked how often someone at home read to them in the evening before they went to sleep and how often their teacher read to them at school. <br /> Why do you think the researchers were interested in finding this out? Look at the statements and decide if they are true or false. <br />
Reading aloud <br /> How often does someone in your family read for you in the evening before you go to sleep? <br />Answer: Never<br />Iceland – 47.4%<br />Spain – 55.4%<br />Turkey – 41.9%<br />UK – 48.8%<br />Does your teacher read aloud to you,<br />Answer: often<br />Iceland – 58%<br />Spain – 50%<br />Turkey – 63%<br />England – 44%<br />
Recommendations <br /> If hearing stories read aloud is important, what are you reading ambassador recommendations to government to encourage reading aloud to children? <br />What are your top 10 books for reading aloud? <br />http://www.randomhouse.co.uk/childrens/GreatBookstoReadAloud/<br />http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0000/0865/Storytelling_tips.pdf<br />
Activity 3 How long do you spend reading and where do you read outside of school<br /> “I love reading. I read everywhere – curled up in an armchair, slouching on the sofa, lying in the bath, half-dozing in bed. I always read on journeys. I even read walking along, though this is silly, and I shall doubtless walk slap-bang into a lamppost one day.”<br /> Jacqueline Wilson <br />
The researchers asked children if they had the internet at home<br />Is there anything interesting in the data? <br />Activity 4<br />Diamond nines <br />Reading ambassador recommendations <br />What are your 3 recommendations to government about internet use and reading?<br />
Favourite books <br /> Children were also asked about their favourite books. Across all four countries these two books were popular:<br />The Twilight series by Stephanie Meyer and<br /> The Harry Potter books by JK Rowling <br /> What sort of books were popular?<br />
The second CPD pack – using children’s literature <br /> More of our children can read, but more are choosing not to be readers.<br />77% of children who read for longer than an hour at a time are above average readers, while just 4% who read for over an hour are below the level expected of them. <br />Only 30% of children who read for up to 10 minutes at a time are above average readers, with 20% below the reading expected level for their age.<br />Text messages are the most popular thing for children to read outside of class with 60% saying they read texts outside of class at least once a month. <br />Children who read text messages but not fiction books are twice as likely to be below average readers compared to those who also read fiction (10% versus 5%).<br />
Real reading – reading for pleasure and purpose involves ….<br />decoding the words and sentences; extracting the meaning; synthesising the topics to create a ‘logical structure’; identifying key ideas and drawing on prior knowledge to make meaning (creating a mental model of the text) <br />You need to know about: vocabulary; literal and inferential comprehension; locating the main idea and evaluation<br />5 specific practices: prediction, questioning, clarifying, imagining and summarisation <br />
The second CPD pack – using children’s literature <br />Core principles<br />To engage the reader in reading for pleasure<br />Using quality texts that offer possibilities <br />To ‘tap in to’ learner’s prior knowledge <br />To teach comprehension strategies <br />To be taught in a range of ‘social contexts’ (groups, pairs, role of the teacher) <br />
Not reading between the lines…<br />But….<br /> ‘Reading comprehension happens between the ears!’<br />Zimmerman and Hutchins (2003)<br />
7 keys to comprehension – what you teach, what you make explicit through modelling and the release of responsibility <br />Creating mental images (including visualisation) <br />Using your background knowledge – making connections (text to self; text to other text; text to same text; text to world) <br />Asking questions (generating questions before, during and after reading to clarify, predict and decide what is important)<br />Making inferences (including response, word games, predicting, wondering)<br />Determining the most important ideas <br />Synthesising (putting it all together) <br />Knowing you ‘don’t get that bit’ and knowing what to do about it. <br />Zimmerman and Hutchins (2003)<br />
Using the pictures <br />What interests you in the picture? <br />What can you tell about the setting ?<br />When do you think the story is set? <br />Where could this be?<br />What sort of stories do you know with settings like this?<br />What sort of people might live in a place like this?<br />What questions would you like to ask the illustrator? <br />
Readers theatre <br />Read the page aloud first then…divide the text<br />Who is reading what? When are we all reading? When is there one voice? Etc<br />Pauses and sighs <br />Chorusing<br />Repeating single words<br />Varying the speed and tone <br />Emphasising certain words – onomatopoeia <br />Adding sound effects<br />Adding action <br />
Dilemmas <br />Conscience alley<br />Or role playing the judge and jury <br />Or speed sharing <br />Or room moving <br />Yes/no/why game (actions or author’s approach etc)<br />
Making connections <br />Text to self<br />Text to other text<br /> Text to same text<br /> Text to world<br />I wonder what you would do?<br />Does this remind you of any other stories you have read? <br />I guess that this was why the witch wanted the tinderbox – what do you think? <br />What do I know about copper, silver and gold? <br />
Summarising <br />Text the story<br />Tweet the story so far (140 characters) <br />Give me a sentence <br />Police report – on the murder of the witch ‘Tell me the facts - now give me the details’ or a 999 call <br />Give the story another title <br />Choose one picture that sums up the story<br />Words cost – and you have a £1 <br />
Where is the rest?<br />All the CPD packs can be found on the website <br />http://www.um.es/childrensliterature/site/<br />One pack is just general ideas that can be used with any text <br />Tinderbox specific pack<br />Children’s data CPD pack <br />