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introduccion biologia


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introduccion biologia

  1. 1. Title Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Introducción a Biología
  2. 2. Fig. 1.5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 13.7 µm <ul><li>All organisms maintain an internal order that is separated from the external environments: </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>The simplest unit of organization is the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells come from pre-existing cells via cell division </li></ul>Energy is required to maintain internal order. - Chemical reactions involved in the breakdown and synthesis of cellular molecules are collectively known as metabolism. Living organisms most respond to a changing environment and maintain stable internal conditions through homeostasis: <ul><li>All organisms growth and develop </li></ul><ul><li>Growth produces more or larger cells </li></ul><ul><li>Development produces organisms with a defined set of characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms have a finite life span </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>To sustain life over many generations, organisms must reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the transmission of genetic material, offspring tend to have traits like their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms evolve at the population level </li></ul><ul><li>Populations of organisms change over the course of many generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution results in traits that promote survival and reproductive success. </li></ul>a: © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers; b: © Alexis Rosenfeld/Photo Researchers; d: © Adam Jones/Visuals Unlimited; e: © Patti Murray/Animals Animals; f: © Paul Hanna/Reuters/Corbis; g: © AP Photo/Mehgan Murphy, National Zoo 7 characteristics common to life
  3. 3. Fig. 1.6 Molecules Levels of organization Atoms Macromolecules cells Tissue organs organism Population Community ecosystem Biosphere
  4. 4. Why is important the study of the biodiversity? What’s biodiversity ? Why is important to protect biodiversity? Diversity?? Species!!!
  5. 5. <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, animals and microorganisms may help us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand essential services provided by ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Is fun!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity ( United Nations Convetion on Biological Diversity ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The variability among living organisms from all sources ” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fig. 1.7
  7. 7. All life forms can be placed into 3 large domains <ul><li>Bacteria (prokaryotic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microorganism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell structure relatively simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea (prokaryotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microorganism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell structure relatively simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukarya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger cells with internal components (eukaryotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All have cell nucleus in which the genetic material is encaged by a membrane </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Common ancestral community of primitive cells Animals Fungi Plants Protists Horizontal gene transfer Vertical evolution KEY Traditionally Eukarya was subdivided in 5 kingdoms
  9. 9. Fig. 1.12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (c) Domain Eukarya: Unicellular and multicellular organisms having cells with internal compartments that serve various functions. (a) Domain Bacteria: Mostly unicellular prokaryotes that inhabit many diverse environments on Earth. (b) Domain Archaea: Unicellular prokaryotes that often live in extreme environments, such as hot springs. Protists: Unicellular and small multicellular organisms that are now subdivided into seven broad groups based on their evolutionary relationships. Plants: Multicellular organisms that can carry out photosynthesis. Fungi: Unicellular and multicellular organisms that have a cell wall but cannot carry out photosynthesis. Fungi usually survive on decaying organic material. Animals: Multicellular organisms that usually have a nervous system and are capable of locomotion. They must eat other organisms or the products of other organisms to live. a: © Dr. David M. Phillips/Visuals Unlimited; b: © B. Boonyaratanakornkit & D.S. Clark, G. Vrdoljak/EM Lab, U of C Berkeley/ Visuals Unlimited; c(1): © Dr. Dennis Kunkel/ Visuals Unlimited; c(2): © Kent Foster/Photo Researchers; c(3): © Carl Schmidt-uchs/Photo Researchers; c(4): © Fritz Polking/Visuals Unlimited
  10. 10. Fig. 1.13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Examples Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacentridae Amphiprion ocellaris 2,000 mya 600 mya 525 mya 420 mya 80 mya ~ 40 mya ~ 9 mya > 3 mya > 5,000,000 > 1,000,000 50,000 30,000 7,000 360 28 1 Taxonomic group Clown anemonefish is found in Approximate time when the common ancestor for this group arose Approximate number of modern species in this group