Neither Paid Nor Forced Chapter 2It’s a myth that literacywas an advantage forthe Spaniards.The conquistadors hadwealth and otherconnections.In reality theyprofessionals whencame to trade.
Under the Lordship of the King Chapter 4The belief that all of theAmericas was underSpanish control withina few years after theinitial contact.In other areas of LatinAmerica, Spanishcontrol was nevercomplete andrebellions werecontinuous.
Continued Chapter 4He shows that thecolonization of theAmericas did nothappen as one fellswoop, but rather as ahistorical processstarting centuriesbefore the magic yearsof 1492 and 1521.
The Lost Worlds of the MalincheThe beliefs that theSpaniards and nativeshad perfectcommunication andthat each groupunderstood the otherswords and intentionsunhindered, oralternatively that manyof the crucial events ofthe conquest were aresult of the two groupsmisunderstanding eachothers intentions.
Continued Chapter 5He claims that communicationbetween the groups were in factvery difficult at first, and that therendering of passages ofspeech made by one group tothe other in post-conquestsources cannot be understoodas having been recorded"verbatim" even though it isunderstood and interpreted thatway.He also shows that the nativescannot be said to have cruciallymisunderstood or misinterpretedthe Spaniards intentions, butrather that they had a goodunderstanding of how theSpanish worked at a very earlystage in the conquest.
The Indians are Coming to an End The belief that the indigenous peoples of the Americas resigned to their fate, included themselves in the new European order and ceased to exist as ethnicities He also argues that many of the indigenous peoples never felt "conquered" but rather that they had formed a partnership with a new power to both of their advantage this is displayed with the case for most of the allied forces that helped Cortés defeat the Aztecs.
Apes and Men Chapter 7The belief that the success ofthe Spanish conquest was dueto either the supposedtechnological superiority of theSpaniards or a kind of inherentcultural superiority and thatSpanish victory was thereforeinevitable.This claims that suchtechnological advantages ashandguns, cannons, steelarmor, horses and dogs werentof great consequence in theactual fighting since they wereall in short supply, and that theAztecs were not daunted by this
ContinuedHe also refutes the notion that theIndians lack of alphabetic writingconstituted a major drawback. Nor werethe Indians childlike, naive or cowardly incomparison with the Spanish such asmany early Spanish sources havepainted them.He argues that the factors behind thesuccess of the conquistadors weremostly the devastating effect of Europeandiseases for which the Indians had noresistance, the disunity betweenindigenous groups some of which alliedwith the Spaniards early, thetechnological advantage of the steelsword, native battle practices that werenot upheld by the Spaniards.Such as killing non-combatants andcivilians, and most importantly the factthat the Indians were fighting on theirown ground with their families and fieldsto care for, which made them quicker to