Zero conditionals, first conditionals and time clauses
ZERO CONDITIONALS FIRST CONDITIONALS & TIME CLAUSESAdapted from a presentation by Fernanda González
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES• Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses.• They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES• Most linguists consider three types of Conditional Sentences, but some of them add one more type: zero conditionals.
ZERO CONDITIONALS• Zero conditionals are used to talk about things that are always true as long as the condition occurs. If you heat water, it boils. If I have coffee after 6pm, I don´t sleep
ZERO CONDITIONALS Zero Conditional sentences are formed as follows: Present simple Present Simple Present continuousIF Present Continuous Present Perfect Present perfect
ZERO CONDITIONALS• This use is similiar to, and can usually be replaced by, a time clause using ‘when’. If I am late for the school bus, my father takes me to school. When I am late for the school bus, my father takes me to school.
FIRST CONDITIONALS First Conditional sentences express a possible condition and its probable result in the future.CONDITION RESULTIf you don’t revise, you’ll fail.If you stay, I’ll leave.
FIRST CONDITIONALS We can use the First Conditional to express different functions:Careful!, If you touch that you’ll get burnt. A warningIf you do that again, I’ll kill you. A threat
FIRST CONDITIONALS I’ll post the letter if you like. An offerIf you lend me the money, I’ll kiss you. A promise
FIRST CONDITIONALS First Conditional sentences are formed as follows: will Present Simple going toIF Present Continuous imperative Present Perfect can/must
FIRST CONDITIONALSExamples:• If you go to Greece for your holidays, I can recommend a great hotel.• If you haven’t finished by ten, you’ll miss the bus.• If you arrive early, wait for me.
FIRST CONDITIONALSTHINGS TO CONSIDER:• The main clause and the if-clause can often go in either order: – If I feel like going out, I’ll give you a call. – I’ll give you a call if I feel like going out.• Use a comma after the if-clause.
FIRST CONDITIONALSCONNECTORS:• The most common connector is IF.• Other connectors we can use are: UNLESS PROVIDED/ PROVIDING (THAT) AS LONG AS ON CONDITION THAT SUPPOSE/ SUPPOSING OTHERWISE IN CASE/ IN CASE OF
FIRST CONDITIONALSCONNECTORS:• Unless you want to go today, we´ll go tomorrow.• We´ll let you have a pet provided/ providing that you look after it properly.• We´ll go to Sierra Nevada this weekend as long as the weather is ok.• You can have a pet on condition that you look after it properly.
FIRST CONDITIONALSCONNECTORS:• Suppose /Supposing the price of electricity tripled tomorrow, what would you do?• You should study harder. Otherwise, you will fail your exams.• I´ll take a coat in case the weather gets colder.• In case of fire, leave the building immediately.
TIME CLAUSES • Time clauses and conditional sentences have something in common: • Conjunctions of time – as soon as – when – until – before – afterare always followed by a present,even though the time referenceis future.
TIME CLAUSESEXAMPLES:• I’ll phone you when I get home.• As soon as I’ve finished reading the book, I’ll lend it to you.• Don’t press that button until I tell you.• Before I get to work, I always have a coffee at Starbuck’s.• I’ll go shopping after he takes the children to school.
“If” or “in case”?“In case” is not exactly equivalent to “if”.Consider these examples:I´ll take a jacket if it´s cold.It means I´ll take a jacket only if it´s cold.I´ll take a jacket in case it´s cold.I´ll take a jacket anyway because it might get cold later.
FIRST CONDIONALS&TIME CLAUSES EXERCISESMake true sentences about yourself:• I won’t stop studying English until . . .• I’ll be really annoyed if . . .• I’ll always live in Marbella unless . . .• I’d like to retire when . . .• I’ll have a big party if . . .• I´ll give you my phone number in case…