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Conceptual metaphors مێتافۆڕی چەمکی

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Conceptual metaphors مێتافۆڕی چەمکی

  1. 1. CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS Ismail Perdawdy, PhD. Candidate in Cognitive Semantics 2018
  2. 2. IN THIS SEMINAR, WE WILL LEARN ABOUT 1. Metaphor 2. The history of Metaphorology 3. Conceptual Metaphor Types 2
  4. 4. WHAT IS METAPHOR? Raymond W. Gibbs’ anecdote 4
  5. 5.  For most of the people, metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another by saying that one is the other, as in  Jack is a lion.  Encyclopaedia Britannica says: “metaphor is a figure of speech that implies comparison between two unlike entities, as distinguished from simile, an explicit comparison signalled by the words like , or as”.  Jack is like a lion. 5
  6. 6. The study of metaphor: Metaphorology Traditional view Modern view: Cognitive Linguistic Approach 6
  7. 7. 7 Traditional view of Metaphor (Aristotle’s time-1980)
  8. 8. 1. Metaphor is a property of words; it is a linguistic phenomenon. 2. Metaphor is used for some artistic and rhetorical purpose, such as when Shakespeare writes “all the world’s a stage”. 3. Metaphor is based on resemblance between the two entities that are compared and identified. Five Characteristics of Metaphor (Traditional View) (1-3)
  9. 9. 4. Metaphor is a conscious and deliberate use of words, and you must have a special talent to be able to do it and do it well. Only great poets or eloquent speakers can be its masters. 5. It is also commonly held that metaphor is a figure of speech that we can do without, we use it for special effects, and it is not an inevitable part of everyday human communication. Five Characteristics of Metaphor (Traditional View) 4-5
  10. 10. 10 Modern view: Cognitive Linguistic Approach to Metaphor
  11. 11. COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO METAPHOR (1980-PRESENT) 11 George Lakoff & Mark Johnson 1980
  12. 12. 12 LAKOFF AND JOHNSON CONFRONTED THE DEEPLY ROOTED VIEW OF METAPHOR BY CLAIMING THAT: 1. Metaphor is a property of concepts, and not of words. 2. The function of metaphor is to better understand certain concepts, and not just some artistic or esthetic purpose. 3. Metaphor is often not based on similarity.
  13. 13. 13 LAKOFF AND JOHNSON CONFRONTED THE DEEPLY ROOTED VIEW OF METAPHOR BY CLAIMING THAT: (CONTINUOUS) 4. Metaphor is used effortlessly in everyday life by ordinary people, not just by special talented people; 5. Metaphor, far from being a redundant though pleasing linguistic ornament, is an inevitable process of human thought and reasoning. Lakoff and Johnson showed convincingly that metaphor is pervasive both in thought and everyday language.
  14. 14. CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR  He’s without direction in life.  I’m where I want to be in life.  I’m at a crossroads in my life.  They’ll go places in life.  He’s never let anyone get in his way.  She’s gone through a lot in life. 14 Where do we usually see the italicized parts of the above sentences? In which domain? JOURNEY
  15. 15. IN COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS Metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. Examples of this include when we talk and think about life in terms of journeys, about arguments in terms of war, and so on. 15 CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN (A) IS CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN (B)
  16. 16. 16 LIFE IS A JOURNEY. A IS B  He’s without direction in life.  I’m where I want to be in life.  I’m at a crossroads in my life.  They’ll go places in life.  He’s never let anyone get in his way.  She’s gone through a lot in life. Metaphoriclinguistic expressions
  17. 17. THE TWO DOMAINS PARTICIPATING IN THE CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR HAVE SPECIAL NAMES 1. The conceptual domain from which we draw metaphorical expressions to understand another conceptual domain is called source domain. 2. The conceptual domain that is understood this way is the target domain. Thus, in LIFE IS A JOURNEY, life is the target domain, while journey is the source domain. 17
  18. 18. SOME EXAMPLES OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR 18  AN ARGUMENT IS WAR  Your claims are indefensible.  He attacked every weak point in my argument.  His criticism were right on target.  I demolished his argument.  I’ve never won an argument with him.  You disagree? Okay, shoot!  If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out.  He shot down all of my arguments.
  19. 19. SOME EXAMPLES OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR 19  LOVE IS JOURNEY  Look how far we’ve come.  We’re at a crossroads.  We’ll just have to go our separate ways.  We can’t turn back now.  I don’t think this relationship is going anywhere.  We are stuck.  It’s been a long, bumpy road.  We’ve gotten of the track.  This relationship is a dead-end street..
  20. 20. SOME EXAMPLES OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IDEAS ARE FOOD  All this paper has in it are raw facts, half- baked  There are too many facts here for me to digest them all.  I just can’t swallow that claim.  Let me stew over that for a while.  That’s food for thought.  She devoured the book. 20
  21. 21. 21 Types of Conceptual Metaphors 1. Structural 2. Ontological 3. Orientational
  22. 22. 1. STRUCTURAL METAPHOR The examples we have so far given are structural metaphors. In the structural metaphors:  the source domain provides a relatively rich knowledge structure for the target concept. In other words, the cognitive function of these metaphors is to enable speakers to understand target A by means of the structure of source B. This understanding takes place by means of conceptual mappings between elements of A and elements of B. 22
  24. 24. TIME IS MONEY  You’re wasting my time.  I don’t have the time to give you.  How do you spend your time these days.  That flat tire cost me an hour.  I’ve invested a lot of time in her.  I don’t have enough time to spare for that  You’re running out of time.  Put aside some time for ping pong.  Do you have some time left?  He’s living on borrowed time.  Thank you for your time. 24
  25. 25. 25  The person leading a life  His purposes  The means for achieving purposes.  Difficulties in life.  Counsellors  Progress.  Things you gauge your progress by  Choices in life.  Material resources and talents.  a traveller.  destinations  routes  impediments to travel  guides  the distance travelled  landmarks  crossroads  provisions Target (LIFE) Source (JOURNEY) LIFE IS A JOURNEY
  26. 26. 26 2.
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. EXAMPLES OF ONTOLOGICAL METAPHORS THE MIND IS A MACHINE  We’re still trying to grind out the solution to this equation.  My mind just isn’t operating today.  Boy, the wheels are turning now!  I’m a little rusty today.  We’ve been working on this problem all day and now we’re running out of steam. ( ‫‌نزين‬‫ه‬‫ب‬! ) 28
  29. 29. STATES ARE CONTAINERS She’s in love. We’re in trouble now. He’s coming out of the coma. I’m slowly getting into shape. He entered a state of euphoria. He fell into a depression. 29 EXAMPLES OF ONTOLOGICAL METAPHORS
  30. 30. 3. ORIENTATIONAL METAPHORS  Orientational metaphors provide even less conceptual structure for target concepts than ontological ones. Their cognitive job, instead, is to make a set of target concepts coherent in our conceptual system. The name derives from the fact that most metaphors that serve this function have to do with basic human spatial orientations, such as up-down, center- periphery, etc. 30
  31. 31. EXAMPLES OF ORIENTATIONAL METAPHORS HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN  I’m feeling up.  That boosted my spirits.  You’re in high spirits.  Thinking about her always gives me a lift.  I’m depressed.  He’s really low these days.  I fell into a depression. 31
  32. 32. SOME EXAMPLES OF ORIENTATIONAL METAPHOR  CONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN Get up. I’m up already. He rises early in the morning. He fell asleep. He’s under hypnosis. He sank into a coma. 32
  33. 33. EXAMPLES OF ORIENTATIONAL METAPHORS HEALTH AND LIFE ARE UP; SICKNESS AND DEATH ARE DOWN He’s at the peak of health. Lazarus rose from death. He fell ill. He came down with the flu. He dropped dead. He dropped dead. 33
  34. 34. EXAMPLES OF ORIENTATIONAL METAPHORS  MORE IS UP;LESS IS DOWN  The number of books printed each year keeps going up.  His draft number is high.  My income rose last year.  The number of errors he made is incredibly low.  He is underage.  His income fell last year. 34
  35. 35. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Encyclopaedia Britannica  Glucksbeg, S. (2001). Understanding figurative language: From metaphors to idioms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980/2003). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.  APHOR07052008.pdf (from which the majority of the slides have been taken, with thanks) 35
  36. 36. THE END 36
  37. 37. 37 Thank you very much for being here

Editor's Notes

  • When the sources talk about metaphor. They usually begin with providing an immediate example. Then they try to define the term. This is due to the complexity of metaphor. It is undeniably difficult to define metaphor. Glucksberg narrates a strange incident happened to Gibbs, who authored many books and articles on metaphor. Once Gibbs was invited to a conference about metaphor in Tel Aviv, during the passport checking, in the airport, a security guard asked him why he was visiting Tel Aviv. Gibbs replied that he had been invited for a conference on metaphor. The guard asked him what a metaphor was but Gibbs lost words and couldn’t define metaphor! The man angrily shouted on Gibbs and said, “you are invited to a metaphor conference and you do not know what metaphor is?!” Gibbs had been kept for inspection for hours until he was eventually saved by one of the hosting professors from Tel Aviv University! The difficulty in describing metaphor has reflected in many textbooks and dictionaries; when defining metaphor, they illustrate the concept of metaphor with examples then give the definition.
  • This new approach to metaphor changed all these aspects of the powerful traditional theory in a coherent and systematic way.
    Their conception has become known as the cognitive linguistic view of metaphor.

    was first developed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in 1980 in their seminal study Metaphors We Live By.
  • Given all these examples, we can see that a large part of the way we speak about life in English derives from the way we speak about journeys. In light of such examples, it seems that speakers of English make extensive use of the domain of journey to think about highly abstract and elusive concept of life.
    Cognitive linguists suggest that they do so because thinking about the abstract concept of life is facilitated by the more concrete concept of journey.
    In the cognitive linguistic view, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. Examples of this include when we talk and think about life in terms
    of journeys, about arguments in terms of war, and so on.
  • The use of small capital letters indicates that the particular wording does not occur in language as such, but it underlies conceptually all the metaphorical expressions listed underneath it.
  • Echoing natural sounds