Spanish transition


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Spanish transition

  1. 1. SPANISH TRANSITION1. The Spanish Transition was a period of the Spanish history in which the way of government changed from a dictatorship to a democracy. It is usually considered it began in 1975 with Franco’s death and it ended in 1982 with the electoral victory of the Spanish Socialist Labour’s Party (PSOE).2. First, the transition began with Franco’s death (November 1975) and after this, Juan Carlos de Borbón took charge of the country becoming new King of Spain and appointing Carlos Arias Navarro head of government.But due to disagreements between Juan Carlos I and Arias Navarro, and because this one didn’t have many intentions to change the way of government, he was forced to resign (July of 1976). So the king decided to appoint Adolfo Suárez new head of government. Adolfo presented a project of Law for Political Reform, which was approved by the Spanish parliament and later by Spanish population in a referendum. This Law for Political Reform would start to open the doors to democracy with the announcement of general elections in June 1977.3. Adolfo Suárez won the elections with his party Union of the Democratic Centre(UCD) and his main challenges were the economic crisis and the creation of a constitution. So, in October of that year the Moncloa Pact was signed to stop the crisis, moreover, the parliament chose 7 politicians to create the Constitution, which was approved by Spanish population in a referendum on December 6, 1978. This Constitution establishes a parliamentary monarchy, divides the power and confirms a large declaration of rights. After the approval of the constitution the general elections were announced (March 1979).4. Suárez and UCD achieved another electoral victory. But this time, internal problems of UCD and the distancing with Juan Carlos I would bind the president to resign at the beginning of 1981. And during the election of Leopoldo Calvo- Sotelo as successor of Suárez, on February 23 of that year, a group of Civil Guard members led by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero entered the Parliament attempting a coup. Fortunately, this was only an attempt; in Valencia panzers were carried to the city’s streets, though.5. Two days after the attempt, Calvo-Sotelo was finally appointed president by the congress. This one, after some problems, dissolved parliament and called elections for October 1982. These elections, which were won by PSOE led by Felipe González, established the end of the Spanish transition.6. In conclusion, the transition is a really important fact because it has caused all this great development, not only the economic one but also a development of freedom and rights people in Francoist period didn’t have. Simply the fact of being murdered just because you think different things is a good reason to change. Maybe this Spain isn’t the best one, but it is much better than that one.