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The Universe

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Presentation to know how The Universe is. You can find information about The Solar System. A very useful resource for CLIL teachers looking for material for Secondary teaching.

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The Universe

  1. 1. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The Milky Way. 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  2. 2. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. SECOND CENTURY Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Ptolomy suggested a GEOCENTRIC ASTRONOMIC MODEL The Sun, the moon and the five known planets ( Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn ) all revolved around the Earth They were well-known in ancient times because they can be easily seen with the naked eye and their movements are easily differentiated from stars which are in a fixed position.
  3. 3. THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 1543 Published his HELIOCENTRIC MODEL Copernicus However, hundreds years before the Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos sugestted that the Earth revolved around the Sun The planets revolved around the Sun Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  4. 4. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 17th CENTURY In 1609 Galileo used a telescope for the first time to observe the night sky. This was the birth of modern astronomy. At the end of the same century, Isaac Newton built the first telescope using mirrors instead of lenses. Newton published his book The Principles of natural Philosophy in which he explained the laws governing the movement of the planets.
  5. 5. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. A C T I V I T Y CTIVITY ONE Find some information about the origin of the universe, especially about The Big Bang Theory. Please, write a summary using your own words. REMEMBER: DO NOT COPY AND PASTE.
  6. 6. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The MilkyWay. 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  7. 7. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. The celestial bodies in the universe are very diverse. The properties of a planet, for example, are very different to those of a star, so the temperature is very high on a star (millions of degrees Celcius).
  8. 8. THE UNIVERSE 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. TYPES OF CELESTIALS BODIES PLANETS COMETS SATELLITES ASTEROIDS CLUSTER OF GALAXIES STARS GALAXIES Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química DWARF PLANETS
  9. 9. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. Like the Earth, which is the planet we live on. PLANETS The planets shine by reflecting light from the Sun.
  10. 10. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. DWARF PLANETS What is a planet? We've been asking that question at least since Greek astronomers came up with the word to describe the bright points of light that seemed to wander among fixed stars. Many disagreed in 1930 when Pluto was added as our solar system's ninth planet. The debate flared again in 2005 when Eris -- about the same size as Pluto -- was found deep in a zone beyond Neptune called the Kuiper Belt. Was it the 10th planet? Or are Eris and Pluto examples of an intriguing, new kind of world?
  11. 11. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. DWARF PLANETS The International Astronomical Union decided in 2006 that a new system of classification was needed to describe these new worlds, which are more developed than asteroids, but different than the known planets. Pluto, Eris and the asteroid Ceres became the first dwarf planets. They are orbiting the sun in zones of similar objects such as the asteroids. Our solar system's planet count now stands at eight. But the lively debate continues as we continue to explore and make new discoveries.
  12. 12. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. DWARF PLANETS
  13. 13. THE UNIVERSE 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. Like the moon, which is the Earth’s only natural satellite. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SATELLITES
  14. 14. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. Which orbit around the Sun on a very long trajectory. COMETS
  15. 15. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. The comet Halley will COMETS return in 1758
  16. 16. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. ASTEROIDS Rocky bodies which are smaller than planets, very often irregular in shape, and which orbit around the Sun.
  17. 17. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. Like the Sun which continuously radiates energy into the space around them STARS
  18. 18. THE UNIVERSE 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. GALAXIES Groups of tens or hundreds of thousands of stars. It is thought that the universe contains approximately 100 000 galaxies. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  19. 19. THE UNIVERSE 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. CLUSTER OF GALAXIES Made up of many different galaxies. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  20. 20. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The MilkyWay. 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  21. 21. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. The size of the celestial bodies is quite incredible as is the distance between these ones too. EXAMPLE A space ship travelling at 40 000 km/h (usual speed) would take 100 000 years to reach the nearest star to the Sun. This is why we use the term LIGHT YEARS when we want to talk about astronomics distances. LIGHT YEARS Distance covered by light in a year. C = 300 000 km/s
  22. 22. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. Astronomer also use another unit ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (A.U.) Distance between the Sun and the Earth 1 A.U. = 150 000 000 km
  23. 23. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The MilkyWay. 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  24. 24. THE UNIVERSE 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. If we look at the night sky on a clear night and well away from the city light we can see hundreds of small lights which seem to be twinkling. STARS Stars have differents characteristics LIGHT SIZE COLOUR BRIGHTNESS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  25. 25. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. COLOUR Not all stars are white as they at first appear. More careful inspection reveals that stars come in a wide range of colours. Some are bluish, reddish, orange. The Sun is a yellow star. The colour of a star depends on its surface temperature, with the coolest stars being the reddest and the hottest ones the bluest
  26. 26. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. SIZE The stars come in a wide range of sizes. The largest stars, known as giants and supergiants, are hundreds of times the diameter of the Sun. In fact, the Sun is a medium sized star. For example, Betelgeuse, a star in the constellation of Orion is 600 times bigger than the Sun. On the other hand, Sirius B in the constellation of Canis Major is 100 times smaller than the Sun.
  27. 27. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. BRIGHTNESS Star brightnesses are expressed in terms of magnitudes. This system was started by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus in the second century B.C. He divided the stars into six categories of brightness, from the brightest stars (first magnitude), to the faintest stars that he could see (sixth magnitude). Nowadays stars brightnesses are measured to the nearest hundredth of a magnitude by sensitive instruments known as photometers.
  28. 28. THE UNIVERSE 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. Some stars emits more light than others. Two stars emitting the same amount of light will not be as bright as each other if they are at different distances from the Earth. LIGHT Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  29. 29. THE UNIVERSE 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. The sky is divided up into 88 areas, known as constellations, which serve as a convenient way of locating the position of objects in the sky. CONSTELLATIONS Constellations come in many different shapes and sizes. The tradition of dividing the sky into constellations began thousands of years ago when ancient people assigned certain star patterns the names of their gods, heroes and fabled animals. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  30. 30. THE UNIVERSE 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. The brightest and biggest stars are shown on a PLANISPHERE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  31. 31. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. A C T I V I T Y CTIVITY TWO Try to find the constellatios of Orion, Leo, Cassiopeia, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Polaris star and Lepus. Can you find all the stars on the planisphere by looking at the night sky in your region? Why do we need very dark nights to be able to observe the star?
  32. 32. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The MilkyWay. 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  33. 33. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.2. The galaxies. Galaxies extend into space as far as the largest telescopes can see. Each is a collection of millions or billions of stars held together by the mutual attraction of gravity. Galaxies are classified according to their shapes. There are two main forms: ELLIPTIC SPIRAL IRREGULAR More or less spherical A flat disc with several arms coming out of the nucleus of the spiral They have not specific shape
  34. 34. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The MilkyWay. All the stars visible to the naked eye are part of an enormous system of at least 100 000 million stars known as The Milky Way. Our Galaxy has a spiral shape. The entire Galaxy is rotating; our Sun takes about 250 million years to complete one orbit around the centre of the Galaxy. The nearest galaxy to our own is Andromeda which is more than two million light years away. This means that when we look at this galaxy we are seeing it as it was more than two million years ago.
  35. 35. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. The stars and the galaxies. A C T I V I T Y CTIVITY THREE What type of galaxy is The Milky Way ? Are there more stars in the swirls spiralling out from the centre or near the nucleus ?
  36. 36. THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE 1. The history of knowledge of the universe. 2. The celestial bodies in the universe. 3. Dimensions and distances in Astronomy. 4. The stars and the galaxies. 4.1. The stars. 4.2. The galaxies. 4.2.1. Our galaxy: The MilkyWay. 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química
  37. 37. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Our planetary system is formed 5000 million of years ago from nebulas’ gases and dust. The Sun is in his centre and it is made up of two gases: Hydrogen and Helium. The planets, satellites, comets and asteroids revolve around the Sun. The comets and the asteroids are smaller bodies. Comets show their spectacular tails when they come close to the Sun. Many are concentrated in a region located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter known as the ASTEROID BELT.
  38. 38. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química The planets revolve around the Sun in eliptical orbits. The planets which are farthest away revolve more slowly and take longer to complete a full revolution. The planets can be classified TERRESTRIAL PLANETS (They have a solid surface) GAS GIANT PLANETS (They do not have a solid surface)
  39. 39. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. TERRESTRIAL PLANETS The closest planet to the Sun, only slightly larger than Earth’s moon. Like the Moon, Mercury has very little atmosphere to stop impacts, and it is covered with craters. Mercury's dayside is super-heated by the Sun, but at night temperatures drop hundreds of degrees below freezing. Ice may even exist in craters. Mercury's egg-shaped orbit takes it around the sun every 88 days. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química MERCURY
  40. 40. THE UNIVERSE Pepi Jaramillo Romero 5. The Solar System. Dpto. Física y Química TERRESTRIAL PLANETS VENUS The brightest planet, Venus, outshines every star in the sky. It is frequently seen rising before the Sun in the morning sky, when it is popularly known as the morning star, or setting in the evening twilight when it is termed the evening star. Venus is a dim world of intense heat and volcanic activity. Similar in structure and size to Earth, Venus' thick, toxic atmosphere traps heat in a runaway "greenhouse effect."
  41. 41. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. TERRESTRIAL PLANETS Earth is an ocean planet. Our home world's abundance of water -- and life -- makes it unique in our solar system. Other planets, plus a few moons, have ice, atmospheres, seasons and even weather, but only on Earth does the whole complicated mix come together in a way that encourages life -- and lots of it. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química EARTH
  42. 42. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. TERRESTRIAL PLANETS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química MARS Mars is a cold desert world. It is half the diameter of Earth and has the same amount of dry land. Like Earth, Mars has seasons, polar ice caps, volcanoes, canyons and weather, but its atmosphere is too thin for liquid water to exist for long on the surface. There are signs of ancient floods on Mars, but evidence for water now exists mainly in icy soil and thin clouds.
  43. 43. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. GAS GIANT PLANETS Jupiter, the most massive planet in our solar system -- with dozens of moons and an enormous magnetic field -- forms a kind of miniature solar system. Jupiter does resemble a star in composition, but it did not grow big enough to ignite. The planet's swirling cloud stripes are punctuated by massive storms such as the Great Red Spot, which has raged for hundreds of years. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química JUPITER
  44. 44. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. GAS GIANT PLANETS Adorned with thousands of beautiful ringlets, Saturn is unique among the planets. All four gas giant planets have rings - made of chunks of ice and rock - but none are as spectacular or as complicated as Saturn's. Like the other gas giants, Saturn is mostly a massive ball of hydrogen and helium. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SATURN
  45. 45. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. GAS GIANT PLANETS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química URANUS Uranus is the only giant planet whose equator is nearly at right angles to its orbit. A collision with an Earth-sized object may explain Uranus' unique tilt. Nearly a twin in size to Neptune, Uranus has more methane in its mainly hydrogen and helium atmosphere than Jupiter or Saturn. Methane gives Uranus its blue tint.
  46. 46. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. GAS GIANT PLANETS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química NEPTUNE Dark, cold and whipped by supersonic winds, Neptune is the last of the hydrogen and helium gas giants in our solar system. More than 30 times as far from the sun as Earth, the planet takes almost 165 Earth years to orbit our sun. In 2011 Neptune completed its first orbit since its discovery in 1846.
  47. 47. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. A C T I V I T Y CTIVITY FOUR Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química What do you think caused the craters on the surface of Mercury ? Why do the photograghs of Pluto show very little detail? Could we send a spaceship to land on Jupiter or Saturn? Explain your answer.
  48. 48. THE UNIVERSE 5. The Solar System. A C T I V I T Y CTIVITY FIVE Which planets take the longest in orbiting the Sun ? Which planets have the longest days and which planets have the shortest days? Which planets are a similar size to the Earth? Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química

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