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ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Subject Physics and Chemistry
Course/Level 3º ESO/4º ESO
Primary Learning Objective Stud...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
METHODOLOGY
Organization and class distribution / timing The number of sessions considered to develop the...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1. EVOLUTION OF THE ATOMIC MODEL
 How do we know atoms exist?
 How do we know that electrons,
protons, ...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.1. SOME EARLY IDEAS ON MATTER
Democritus (Thracian, born 470 B.C.)
Actually proposed the word atom (ind...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.2. DALTON’S ATOMIC MODEL
From his experiments and observations, as well as the
work of contemporary sci...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. CROOKE’S TUBE
In 1877, Sir William Crookes (1832 - 1919) was the British scientist who invented
the ...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. CROOKE’S TUBE
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT
Crookes’s work was later expanded upon by several other scientists...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT
Thomson’s Experiment
Crookes’s work was later expanded upon by sev...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT
Thomson’s Experiment
• The rays bent towards the positive pole,
in...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT
As shown in the following video:
Activity 1.4.1: Thomson experimen...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT
• He compared the value with the mass/ charge ratio for the lighte...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT
J.J. Thomson adopted Lord Kelvin’s model, it became known as the:
...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
In 1886, Eugen Goldstein, using equipment similar to
cathode ray tube, discovered particles with charge e...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.5. THE CHARGE OF THE ELECTRON
In 1909, Robert Millikan and Harvey Fletcher devised what is
known as the...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
Rutherford began to notice
that alpha particles would
not always behave in
acco...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
Rutherford’s Experiment
He shot high velocity alpha particles (helium nuclei) a...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
Activity 1.5.1: Here is a short video of his experiment:
Rutherford's experimen...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
The observations:
(1) Most of the alpha particles pass through the foil un-defl...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
In 1911, Rutherford cooked up a new model of the atom in which all of the posit...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
 What was to stop the orbiting electrons in
Rutherford's atom quickly (in fact...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.7. BOHR’S ATOMIC MODEL
The answer came from a young Dane, Niels Bohr
 In the Bohr Model (1913) the
neu...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.7. BOHR’S ATOMIC MODEL
• Bohr’s contributions to the understanding of atomic structure:
1. Electrons ca...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.8. DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON
Activity 1.8.1: To know more:
Nobel Prize for Physics in 1935
In 1932, Jame...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.8. DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON
From his analysis, he concluded that the nucleus also contains a particle
w...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
In fact, it is impossible to determine the exact location of an
electron. The probable location of an electron is based on...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.10. THE STANDARD MODEL
When scientists study the subatomic particles and forces that bind them together...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.10. THE STANDARD MODEL
Physicists have developed a theory called The Standard Model that
explains what ...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.10. THE STANDARD MODEL
While an atom is tiny, the nucleus is ten thousand
times smaller than the atom a...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1. EVOLUTION OF THE ATOMIC MODEL
Dalton’s model
(1803)
Thomson’s plum-pudding
model (1897)
Rutherford’s m...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1. EVOLUTION OF THE ATOMIC MODEL
Activity 2.3.1: Protons, neutrons and
electrons experiences
Challenge
St...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2. PARTICLES IN THE ATOM
An atom can be identified by two numbers:
• The number of protons in the nucleus...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.1. PARTICLES
• Example
– number of protons
– number of neutrons
– number of electrons *
– Atomic number...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
– number of protons?
– number of neutrons?
– number of electrons?
– Atomic number?
– Mass number?
Br80
35...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
However…
– number of protons
– number of neutrons
– number of electrons
– Atomic number
– Mass number
Na2...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.1. PARTICLES
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Name Symbol Charge
Relative
mass
Actual
mass (g)
e-
p+
no
-1
+1
0
...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.1. PARTICLES
Activity 2.1.2: Using a periodic table and what you know about
atomic number, mass and ele...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.2. ISOTOPES
The number of protons for an element must always be the same (e.g.
oxygen always has 8 prot...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.2. ISOTOPES
Isotopes of Hydrogen
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.2. ISOTOPES
The average atomic mass of an element is found by
adding together the product of the mass o...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.2. ISOTOPES
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2.2. ISOTOPES
Activity 2.2.1: Find mercury’s average atomic mass if we know:
After, not before! Looking a...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3. PERIODIC TABLE
Activity 3.1: Click on this link and explore the Periodic
table of the elements.
Activi...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
The early versions of the periodic table included
approximately 60 kno...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
An early version of the periodic table was first published by
Julius L...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
Between 1869 and 1871, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev
systematically...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
Mendeleev’s table became widely accepted, primarily
because he predict...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
In 1913, English physicist Henry Moseley (1887-1915) examined the x-
r...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
Electron configuration of an element is the
arrangement of its electrons in i...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest
energy orbi...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
Order in which subshells are filled with electrons
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
Notation
• Orbital Diagram
• Electron Configuration
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpt...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
Notation
• Longhand Configuration
• Shorthand Configuration
Pepi Jaramillo Ro...
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.4. ELEMENTS IN THE HUMAN BODY: TOP TEN
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
1. Evolution of the atomic model.
1.1. Some early ideas on matter.
1.2. Dalton’s atomic model.
1.3. Crooke’s tube.
1.4. Th...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
In this section, we are going to look at specific properties that can
b...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
Electron affinity is the energy required for an electron to be added to...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
One important
characteristic that
determines the way in
which elements ...
Atomic and ionic radii of the first five elements in Groups 1, 2, 13, 16, and 17. Atoms are shown in gray.
The most common...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
Electronegativity is a measure of the relative tendency of an atom to
a...
Summary of periodic trends within periods and groups.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
Periodic trends i...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
Activity 3.5.1: Write the electron configurations for the following
ion...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
Activity 3.5.4: Using only the periodic table, arrange each set of atom...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
BIBLIOGRAPHY
- https://www.youtube.com/...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
IES Rodríguez Moñino
BIBLIOGRAPHY
- http://mypages.iit.edu/~...
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Atomicstructure

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Lesson plan about Atomic structure with explanations and activities. (CLIL)

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Atomicstructure

  1. 1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Subject Physics and Chemistry Course/Level 3º ESO/4º ESO Primary Learning Objective Students will be able to define atom and element in their own words, and demonstrate an understanding of the structure of atoms by creating a physical model. On the other hand, students will understand that the periodic table is a graphic representation of all known elements and that it contains information about the properties of each element. Subject Content 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. Language Content / Communication Vocabulary Continuous , metals, non-metals, metalloids, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition elements, halogens, noble gases, lanthanides, actinides, inner transition elements, hydrogen, properties, atomic structure, particles, isotopes, average atomic mass, atomic number, mass number, electron configuration, group, period, model, etc. Structures Routines: How do we know atoms exist? Where does matter come from? How are elements formed? Are all atoms of an element the same? How do we measure atoms if they are so small? Contents: Conditionals, present, future, comparatives. Classroom management: Take out your notebook/recorder/pen, write down the following sentence, right! / you're right, well done! / very well! / good job , etc. Discourse type Exposition, description, argument. Language skills Writing, reading, speaking and listening Activities The presentation includes different activities with an explanation in order to the students answer a question or solve a problem. LESSON PLAN Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  2. 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE METHODOLOGY Organization and class distribution / timing The number of sessions considered to develop the contents on this unit are at least 8 sessions of 50 minutes each one (+ 2 week final Project) It’s very important to point out that the methodology will be active and participatory in order to facilitate both individual and group learning. For that, teacher observation is very important during student's work. Key Competences Language proficiency Know, acquire and apply the vocabulary of the subject. Exercising a comprehensive reading of texts related to the topic. Mathematical Competence Be able to mathematically calculate protons, neutrons and electrons from atomic mass and number mass. Calculate the average atomic mass of an atom from isotopic data. Digital competence and treatment of information I use PDI to explain content and implementation of web quest by students. Make the online activities. Social and civic competences Fostering respect between and other values like cooperation, coeducation when they work in groups. Autonomy and personal initiative To be autonomous for individual activities. Evaluation Acquired content knowledge (*) Describe the development of the concept of the atom from Democritus to the modern day. Compare and contrast the continuous and discontinuous theories of matter. Summarize the five essential points of Dalton’s atomic theory. List the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Describe the history of the periodic table and the contributions of Meyer, Newlands, Mendeleev, etc. Describe the relationship between atomic number and atomic mass. Describe our modern periodic table and how the elements are arranged. Distinguish between core and valence electrons. Identify each block of the periodic table and be able to determine which block each element belongs based on its electron configuration. Describe the relationship between outer electron configuration and group number. Locate the following groups of elements on the periodic table: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, transition elements, lanthanides, and actinides. Instruments The unit will be evaluated daily with: Individual participation in classroom activities and homework. Works in groups. Notebook. Behaviour. Tests. Glossary. Conceptual maps Final Project. (*) Depends on the student’s level. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  3. 3. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  4. 4. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. EVOLUTION OF THE ATOMIC MODEL  How do we know atoms exist?  How do we know that electrons, protons, and neutrons exist?  Where does matter come from?  How are elements formed?  Are all atoms of an element the same?  How do we measure atoms if they are so small? Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  5. 5. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  6. 6. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.1. SOME EARLY IDEAS ON MATTER Democritus (Thracian, born 470 B.C.) Actually proposed the word atom (indivisible) because he believed that all matter consisted of such tiny units with voids between, an idea quite similar to our own beliefs. He expanded upon the work of Leucippus, a mentor of his, who believed matter was actually finite and not limitless. Democritus proposed that all matter is composed of fundamental, indivisible particles that he called atoms. The essential ideas behind his theory are the following: 1.Everything is composed of “atoms,” which are physically indivisible. 2.Atoms are indestructible and constantly in motion. 3.There is empty space between atoms. Empedocles (Greek, born in Sicily, 490 B.C.) Suggested there were only four basic seeds: earth, air, fire, and water. The elementary substances (atoms to us) combined in various ways to make everything. Aristotle (Greek, born 384 B.C.) Added the idea of “qualities” – heat, cold, dryness, moisture – as basic elements which combined as shown in the diagram Aristotle, who was considered a greater “authority,” taught against it and influenced other philosophers to reject the ideas of Democritus. It would be thousands of years before his ideas were reviewed and found to be consistent with more recently available scientific evidence. However, this idea was not well-received at the time. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  7. 7. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  8. 8. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.2. DALTON’S ATOMIC MODEL From his experiments and observations, as well as the work of contemporary scientists, Dalton proposed a new theory of the atom around 1803. The general tenets of this theory were as follows: 1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles. Dalton, like Democritus, called these particles “atoms”. 2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties. Atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties. 3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. 4. Atoms of different elements can combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds. 5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  9. 9. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  10. 10. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. CROOKE’S TUBE In 1877, Sir William Crookes (1832 - 1919) was the British scientist who invented the cathode ray tube. He was studying how electrical current behaves in a vacuum tube. His work paved the way to the discovery of the electron. Video: Crooke's tube The Crookes tube can be thought of as the forerunner of the modern fluorescent light tube - a partially evacuated tube fitted with electrodes and filled with mercury vapor and a little argon gas. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  11. 11. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. CROOKE’S TUBE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  12. 12. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  13. 13. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT Crookes’s work was later expanded upon by several other scientists. One scientist in particular, J. J. Thomson, was able to show that cathode rays could be deflected by a magnetic field. The particle that J.J. Thomson discovered in 1897, the electron, is a constituent of all the matter we are surrounded by. All atoms are made of a nucleus and electrons. He received the Nobel Prize in 1906 for the discovery of the electron, the first elementary particle. Activity 1.4.1: To know more: Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906 Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  14. 14. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT Thomson’s Experiment Crookes’s work was later expanded upon by several other scientists. One scientist in particular, J. J. Thomson (1897) made a piece of equipment called a cathode ray tube (it is a vacuum tube - all the air has been pumped out). • Using a cathode ray tube, Thomson was able to deflect cathode rays with an electrical field. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  15. 15. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT Thomson’s Experiment • The rays bent towards the positive pole, indicating that they are negatively charged. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  16. 16. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT As shown in the following video: Activity 1.4.1: Thomson experiment Activity 1.4.2: Let’s go to the lab! Cathode rays experiment. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  17. 17. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT • He compared the value with the mass/ charge ratio for the lightest charged particle. • By comparison, Thomson estimated that the cathode ray particle weighed 1/1000 as much as hydrogen, the lightest atom. • He concluded that atoms do contain subatomic particles - atoms are divisible into smaller particles. • This conclusion contradicted Dalton’s postulate and was not widely accepted by fellow physicists and chemists of his day. • Since any electrode material produces an identical ray, cathode ray particles are present in all types of matter - a universal negatively charged subatomic particle later named the electron. Conclusions Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  18. 18. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT J.J. Thomson adopted Lord Kelvin’s model, it became known as the: Plum Pudding Model. •The atom was still thought of as a miniscule particle. •Inside of the atom were the protons and electrons equally distributed. •The analogy of Plum Pudding was the positive protons were the pudding and distributed throughout the pudding were the negative electrons (plums). Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  19. 19. ATOMIC STRUCTURE In 1886, Eugen Goldstein, using equipment similar to cathode ray tube, discovered particles with charge equal and opposite to that of electron, but much larger mass. He named this “canal rays”. Infact these are positively charged protons, producing a reddish light in the upper part of the tube. However, Goldstein could not explain this phenomenon. Rutherford later (1911) found these particles named protons. 1.4. THE ELECTRON DISCOVERY EXPERIMENT Original form of a Goldstein tube. This model is a Leybold's Nachfolger product Probably made second quarter of the 20th century Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  20. 20. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  21. 21. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.5. THE CHARGE OF THE ELECTRON In 1909, Robert Millikan and Harvey Fletcher devised what is known as the oil drop experiment to determine the charge of a single electron. Using this information, Millikan calculated the charge of an electron to be 1.5924 × 10−19 coulombs (C). Today, the accepted value for the charge of an electron is 1.602176487 × 10−19 C. Despite the relatively simple apparatus with which it was determined, Millikan’s value was within 1% of the currently accepted value. Activity 1.5.1: The following video illustrates this experiment and explains how the charge of an electron was determined: Millikan oil drop experiment Activity 1.5.2: To know more: Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  22. 22. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  23. 23. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT Rutherford began to notice that alpha particles would not always behave in accordance to the plum pudding model of an atom when fired at a piece of gold foil. These observations stimulated further research that was eventually published in 1911 and has been known ever since as Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment. Activity 1.6.1: To know more: Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908 Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  24. 24. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT Rutherford’s Experiment He shot high velocity alpha particles (helium nuclei) at an atom then there would be very little to deflect the alpha particles. He decided to test this with a thin film of gold atoms. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  25. 25. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT Activity 1.5.1: Here is a short video of his experiment: Rutherford's experiment The positive alpha particles were expected to pass through the thin piece of gold foil. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  26. 26. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT The observations: (1) Most of the alpha particles pass through the foil un-deflected. (2) Some alpha particles are deflected slightly as the penetrate the foil. (3) A few (about 1 in 20,000) are greatly deflected. (4) A similar small number do not penetrate the foil at all, but are reflected back toward the source. Rutherford described it as the most incredible event of his life, "as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you." Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  27. 27. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT In 1911, Rutherford cooked up a new model of the atom in which all of the positive charge is crammed inside a tiny, massive nucleus about ten thousand times smaller than the atom as a whole. That's equivalent in scale to a marble in the middle of a football stadium. Rutherford countered by saying that the atom was like a miniature solar system: the electrons circled the nucleus in wide orbits just as planets orbit the sun. This is the picture of atoms that most of us still carry around in our heads. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  28. 28. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.6. GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT  What was to stop the orbiting electrons in Rutherford's atom quickly (in fact, in about one hundred-millionth of a second) losing all their energy and spiraling into the nucleus? According to classical physics, light should be emitted as the electron circles the nucleus. A loss of energy would cause the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus and eventually spiral into it. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  29. 29. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  30. 30. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.7. BOHR’S ATOMIC MODEL The answer came from a young Dane, Niels Bohr  In the Bohr Model (1913) the neutrons and protons occupy a dense central region called the nucleus, and the electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets orbiting the Sun.  They are not confined to a planar orbit like the planets are. Activity 1.7.1: To know more: Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922 Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  31. 31. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.7. BOHR’S ATOMIC MODEL • Bohr’s contributions to the understanding of atomic structure: 1. Electrons can occupy only certain regions of space, called orbits. 2. Orbits closer to the nucleus are more stable (they are at lower energy levels). 3. Electrons can move from one orbit to another by absorbing or emitting energy, giving rise to a characteristic spectra. • Bohr’s model could not explain the spectra of atoms heavier than hydrogen. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  32. 32. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  33. 33. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.8. DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON Activity 1.8.1: To know more: Nobel Prize for Physics in 1935 In 1932, James Chadwick discovered the neutron. Chadwick was an English physicist who was mentored by Rutherford. His experiment consisted of bombarding beryllium atoms with alpha particles through a paraffin wax target and studying the effects. Activity 1.8.2: Neutrons from Berillium Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  34. 34. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.8. DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON From his analysis, he concluded that the nucleus also contains a particle which has equal mass to the proton, but unlike the proton, is electrically neutral - hence the name neutron. Activity 1.8.3: Here is a short video clip describing Chadwick’s experiment: Discovery of neutrons A neutron walks into a restaurant and orders a couple of drinks. As she is about to leave, she asks the waiter how much she owes. The waiter replies, “For you, no charge!!!” Your funny jokes always make me bust up. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  35. 35. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  36. 36. In fact, it is impossible to determine the exact location of an electron. The probable location of an electron is based on how much energy the electron has. According to the modern atomic model, at atom has a small positively charged nucleus surrounded by a large region in which there are enough electrons to make an atom neutral. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.9. CHARGE-CLOUD MODEL Modern atomic theory described the electronic structure of the atom as the probability of finding electrons within certain regions of space. Today’s atomic model is based on the principles of wave mechanics. According to the theory of wave mechanics, electrons do not move about an atom in a definite path, like the planets around the sun. In the current model of the atom, electrons occupy regions of space (orbitals) around the nucleus determined by their energies. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  37. 37. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  38. 38. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.10. THE STANDARD MODEL When scientists study the subatomic particles and forces that bind them together, they also learn about the early history of the universe and how it began with the "Big Bang." When the universe was very young, atoms didn't exist, because it was too hot for them to form. The only form of matter was a sort of "primordial soup," consisting of the most basic particles, such as quarks and electrons. The instruments that particle physicists use for their studies include accelerators, detectors and powerful computers. Accelerators give the protons enormous energy. To study very small particles scientists need very high-energy protons and very big accelerators. A particle accelerator uses an electric field to propel electrically charged particles in a desired direction. Activity 1.10.1: Here is a short video: Large Hadron rap Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  39. 39. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.10. THE STANDARD MODEL Physicists have developed a theory called The Standard Model that explains what the world is and what holds it together. It is a simple and comprehensive theory that explains all the hundreds of particles and complex interactions with only: The Standard Model describes how the fundamental particles affect each other–how they interact, the forces they feel. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  40. 40. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.10. THE STANDARD MODEL While an atom is tiny, the nucleus is ten thousand times smaller than the atom and the quarks and electrons are at least ten thousand times smaller than that. We don't know exactly how small quarks and electrons are; they are definitely smaller than 10-18 meters, and they might literally be points, but we do not know. It is also possible that quarks and electrons are not fundamental after all, and will turn out to be made up of other, more fundamental particles. If the atom was the size of a stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  41. 41. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. EVOLUTION OF THE ATOMIC MODEL Dalton’s model (1803) Thomson’s plum-pudding model (1897) Rutherford’s model (1909) Bohr’s model (1913) Charge-cloud model (present) Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 125 Greek model (400 B.C.) 1800 1805 ..................... 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1803 John Dalton pictures atoms as tiny, indestructible particles, with no internal structure. 1897 J.J. Thomson, a British scientist, discovers the electron, leading to his "plum-pudding" model. He pictures electrons embedded in a sphere of positive electric charge. 1904 Hantaro Nagaoka, a Japanese physicist, suggests that an atom has a central nucleus. Electrons move in orbits like the rings around Saturn. 1911 New Zealander Ernest Rutherford states that an atom has a dense, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move randomly in the space around the nucleus. 1913 In Niels Bohr's model, the electrons move in spherical orbits at fixed distances from the nucleus. 1924 Frenchman Louis de Broglie proposes that moving particles like electrons have some properties of waves. Within a few years evidence is collected to support his idea. 1926 Erwin Schrödinger develops mathematical equations to describe the motion of electrons in atoms. His work leads to the electron cloud model. 1932 James Chadwick, a British physicist, confirms the existence of neutrons, which have no charge. Atomic nuclei contain neutrons and positively charged protons. + - - - - -e e e + + + + ++ + + e ee e e ee Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  42. 42. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. EVOLUTION OF THE ATOMIC MODEL Activity 2.3.1: Protons, neutrons and electrons experiences Challenge Students have to design an experiment to understand the process of solving problems by using indirect evidence fallowing the scientific method. Key: Atomic model Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  43. 43. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  44. 44. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2. PARTICLES IN THE ATOM An atom can be identified by two numbers: • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines an element’s atomic number (Z). The atomic number of an element never changes, meaning that the number of protons in the nucleus of every atom in an element that is always the same. • All atoms have a mass number (A). It is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  45. 45. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  46. 46. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.1. PARTICLES • Example – number of protons – number of neutrons – number of electrons * – Atomic number – Mass number F19 9 = 9 = 10 = 9 = 9 = 19 + * In a neutral atom, the number of electrons equals the number of protons. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  47. 47. ATOMIC STRUCTURE – number of protons? – number of neutrons? – number of electrons? – Atomic number? – Mass number? Br80 35 2.1. PARTICLES Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  48. 48. ATOMIC STRUCTURE However… – number of protons – number of neutrons – number of electrons – Atomic number – Mass number Na23 11 + Sodium ion = 11 = 12 = 10 = 11 = 23  Why? 2.1. PARTICLES Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  49. 49. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.1. PARTICLES Electron Proton Neutron Name Symbol Charge Relative mass Actual mass (g) e- p+ no -1 +1 0 1/1840 1 1 9.11 x 10-28 1.67 x 10-24 1.67 x 10-24 Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  50. 50. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.1. PARTICLES Activity 2.1.2: Using a periodic table and what you know about atomic number, mass and electrons, fill in the chart: Element Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Mass Protons Neutrons Electrons Charge 8 8 8 Potassium 39 +1 Br 45 -1 30 35 30 Activity 2.1.1: Mass number practice Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  51. 51. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  52. 52. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.2. ISOTOPES The number of protons for an element must always be the same (e.g. oxygen always has 8 protons), but the number of neutrons can be different. Atoms of an element can have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, thus different atomic masses. Atoms that have the same number of protons, and hence the same atomic number, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  53. 53. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.2. ISOTOPES Isotopes of Hydrogen Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  54. 54. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.2. ISOTOPES The average atomic mass of an element is found by adding together the product of the mass of the isotope an percent abundance. EXAMPLE: Calculate the avg. atomic mass of oxygen if its abundance in nature is 99.76% 16O, 0.04% 17O, and 0.20% 18O. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  55. 55. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.2. ISOTOPES Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  56. 56. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2.2. ISOTOPES Activity 2.2.1: Find mercury’s average atomic mass if we know: After, not before! Looking at the average atomic mass printed on the periodic table. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  57. 57. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  58. 58. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3. PERIODIC TABLE Activity 3.1: Click on this link and explore the Periodic table of the elements. Activity 3.2: Click on each Elements to know. Activity 3.3: Sing Slow “The new periodic table song” Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  59. 59. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  60. 60. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE The early versions of the periodic table included approximately 60 known elements, while our current version includes 118. One of the major developments that allowed for what became known as the periodic table was the idea of atomic mass, which is attributed to John Dalton. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  61. 61. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE An early version of the periodic table was first published by Julius Lothar Meyer in 1864, where he used the concept of valence to group similar elements together. In 1865, Newlands described a periodic pattern in the properties of the elements that he referred to as the Law of Octaves. This anticipated later developments in our understanding of the periodic law. Newlands' Law of Octaves Octaves H Li Ga B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K Ca Cr Ti Mn Fe Co, Ni Cu Zn Y In As Se Br Rb Sr Ce, La Zr Di, Mo Ro, Ru Pd Ag Cd U Sn Sb Te I Cs Ba, V Ta W Nb Au Pt, Ir Tl Pb Th Hg Bi Th Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  62. 62. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Between 1869 and 1871, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev systematically arranged 60 elements based on increasing atomic weight. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  63. 63. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Mendeleev’s table became widely accepted, primarily because he predicted the characteristics and placement of elements which were yet to be discovered. Activity 1.3.1: Here is a short video: A brief history of the periodic table Activity 1.3.2: Video: GCSE Science Revision - The Periodic Table of the elements Activity 1.3.3: Here is a movie: Chem KS3 BBC Bitesize Old 04 The Periodic Table Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  64. 64. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.3. HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE In 1913, English physicist Henry Moseley (1887-1915) examined the x- ray spectra of a number of chemical elements. His results led to the definition of atomic number as the number of protons contained in the nucleus of each atom. He then realized that the elements of the periodic table should be arranged in order of increasing atomic number instead of increasing atomic mass. When ordered by atomic number, the discrepancies within Mendeleev’s table disappeared. The result is the periodic table as we know it today. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  65. 65. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  66. 66. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Electron configuration of an element is the arrangement of its electrons in its atomic orbitals One can obtain and explain a great deal of the chemistry of the element by knowing its electron configuration Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  67. 67. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Hund’s Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. Within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them. “Empty Bus Seat Rule” FILLING RULES FOR ELECTRON ORBITALS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  68. 68. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Order in which subshells are filled with electrons Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  69. 69. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Notation • Orbital Diagram • Electron Configuration Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  70. 70. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Notation • Longhand Configuration • Shorthand Configuration Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  71. 71. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  72. 72. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  73. 73. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  74. 74. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  75. 75. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  76. 76. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  77. 77. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.3. PERIODIC PATTERNS Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  78. 78. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  79. 79. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.4. ELEMENTS IN THE HUMAN BODY: TOP TEN Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  80. 80. 1. Evolution of the atomic model. 1.1. Some early ideas on matter. 1.2. Dalton’s atomic model. 1.3. Crooke’s tube. 1.4. The electron discovery experiment. 1.5. The charge of the electron. 1.6. Gold foil experiment. 1.7. Bohr’s atomic model. 1.8. Discovery of the neutron. 1.9. Charge-cloud model. 1.10. The Standard model. 2. Particles in the atom. 2.1. Particles. 2.2. Isotopes. 3. Periodic table. 3.1. History of the periodic table. 3.2. Electron configuration. 3.3. Periodic patterns. 3.4. Elements in the human body: top ten. 3.5. Trends in the periodic table. OUTLINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  81. 81. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE In this section, we are going to look at specific properties that can be predicted by an element's position on the periodic table. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a specific atom. Ionization energy generally increases as you move left to right across the table or from bottom to top. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  82. 82. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron affinity is the energy required for an electron to be added to a neutral atom in its gaseous form. Because most atoms release energy when an electron is added, most electron affinity values are negative. These values generally become more negative (more energy is released) as you move left to right across the table or from bottom to top. Electron affinities (in kJ/mol) for representative elements in the first five periods. Electron affinities are written as negative numbers because energy is being released. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  83. 83. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE One important characteristic that determines the way in which elements behave is the total size of each atom. Free atoms are spherical in shape, so the relative sizes of the elements can be compared by looking at each atom's atomic radius, which is the distance from an atom's nucleus to the electrons in the outermost orbitals. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  84. 84. Atomic and ionic radii of the first five elements in Groups 1, 2, 13, 16, and 17. Atoms are shown in gray. The most common ion for each element is shown in either green (for cations) or purple (for anions). ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Ionic radius helps to indicate the size of an ion as compared to its parent atom. Cations always have a smaller atomic radius than the parent atom; anions always have a larger atomic radius than the parent atom. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  85. 85. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Electronegativity is a measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom. In general, electronegativity increases as you move left to right across the table and from bottom to top. The electronegativity scale was developed by Nobel Prize winning American chemist Linus Pauling. The largest electronegativity (3.98) is assigned to fluorine, and all other electronegativity measurements are made relative to that value. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  86. 86. Summary of periodic trends within periods and groups. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Periodic trends in metallic and non-metallic characteristics mirror those of the other properties that we have discussed; the most metallic elements are at the lower left of the table, and the most non- metallic elements are at the upper right. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  87. 87. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Activity 3.5.1: Write the electron configurations for the following ions: a. Li+ b. Be2+ c. N3- d. O2- e. F- Activity 3.5.2: Which configuration corresponds to an atom with a larger radius: 1s22s22p1 or 1s22s22p6? Identify these elements. Activity 3.5.3: Which configuration corresponds to an atom with a larger radius: 1s22s22p6 or 1s22s22p63s23p6? Identify these elements. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  88. 88. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.5. TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Activity 3.5.4: Using only the periodic table, arrange each set of atoms in order of increasing atomic radius: a. Rb, Cs, Li b. B, Li, F c. Cl, F, Ba d. Rb, Be, K Activity 3.5.5: Arrange each set of atoms and ions in order of increasing radius: a. O, O-, O2- b. Li+, Li, Be2+ c. Na+, Mg2+, Al3+ d. F-, Br-, O2- Activity 3.5.6: Arrange each set of atoms in order of increasing electron affinity (least negative to most negative): a. Li, K, F b. F, O, N c. S, Cl, Ca Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino
  89. 89. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino BIBLIOGRAPHY - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLUmuYkxExQ - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TICGU0Qq1h0 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGUOmV33P9I - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnmEI94URK8 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j50ZssEojtM VIDEOS
  90. 90. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química IES Rodríguez Moñino BIBLIOGRAPHY - http://mypages.iit.edu/~smile/ch8706.html - http://www.unit5.org/Page/4023 - http://www-outreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/nucleus/nucleus1_1.htm - http://www.unit5.org/Page/51 - http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/Rutherfords_experiment_ and_atomic_model.html - http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in- history/themes/atomic-and-nuclear-structure/thomson.aspx - http://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/scientists_rutherford.html - http://www.teach-nology.com/gold/atom1.html - http://ap-physics.david-s.org/geiger-marsden-experiment/ - https://www.learner.org/courses/physics/unit/text.html?unit=1&secNu m=2 - http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=798 - http://www-outreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/neutron/neutron5_1.htm WEBSITES

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