Relative clauses


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Relative clauses

  2. 2. Two examples Here’s the book which you were looking for.  Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives on the corner. 
  3. 3. Relative pronouns / adverbs         Who people Which things That people/things Where places Whose possession his/her… When time Why reason Whom people that in defining that in defining only in defining =at/in which replaces =the day on which the reason for which after prepositions
  4. 4. Remember That: can only be used in defining  Where and Whose: cannot be left out or replaced by “that”  Which: can refer to one clause in non-defining relative clauses:   He got married again, which surprised me.
  5. 5. Relative clauses  Relative clauses provide extra information. This information can either define something (defining clause), or provide unnecessary, added information (non-defining clause).
  6. 6. Defining Relative Clauses     They identify or classify nouns. The information provided in a defining relative clause is crucial in understanding the meaning of the sentence. People who/that take exercise live longer. The woman who/that lives next door has been arrested.
  7. 7. That / pronoun omission  We can replace WHO/WHICH with THAT.  Children who (that) play with fire are in great danger of harm.  -We can leave out the pronoun when it functions as object:  The city (which/that) I visited was great.
  8. 8. Non-defining relative clauses     Non-defining relative clauses provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence. They tell us more about a person/thing. That cannot be used The relative pronoun cannot be omitted  Mr. Rogers, who is a skilled worker, has been fired.
  9. 9. what / that = the things which  It is not a pronoun, so it is not used after a noun/pronoun  I hope you have what I need (the thing which)  They only thing that keeps me awake is coffee.  So, after a noun/pronoun: use that. 
  10. 10. Prepositions  1-Before the pronoun: more formal  He was respected by the people with whom he worked.  It is a society to which many important people belong.  2-At the end: less formal  He was respected by the people (that/who) he worked with.