A Comparison of 5popular Models forManaging Business Change Jan 2013
Change Management Models- a Comparison• George Box, a statistician, famously wrote that "essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful” . The field of change management continues to prove him right.• Organizational change management (OCM) is a structured approach in an organization for ensuring that changes are smoothly and successfully implemented, and that the lasting benefits of change are achieved. That is easier said than done.• Nevertheless, there are many management consultants, clinical psychologists and social scientists who have carried out extensive research on the dynamics of change and proposed models and frameworks to understand the same.• We present here a comparison of five popular models. By no means is this list complete. The complexity and unpredictability of human behavior will ensure that the field of change management will continuously produce more frameworks to study and more models to adopt.
Kotter’s Eights Steps to Change John Kotter’s (1996) eight steps to transforming organizations are based upon analysis of 100 different organizations going through change. His research highlighted eight key lessons which he converted into a practical eight-step model. Although represented by Kotter in a linear fashion, experience suggests that it is better to think of the steps as a continuous cycle to ensure that the momentum of the change is maintained. Establish a Form a Develop a vision Communicate Sense of powerful, guidin & Strategy the vision Urgency g coalition Remove Plan and create Consolidate Anchor in the Obstacles & short-term wins gains culture empower action Benefits Limitations 1. Focus on buy-in of employees as the 1. The model is clearly top-down, it focus for success gives no room for co-creation or 2. Clear steps which can give a other forms of true participation. guidance for the process 2. Can lead to frustrations among 3. Fits well into the culture of classical employees if the stages of hierarchies grief and individual needs are not taken into consideration. More at :http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/changesteps/changesteps
The ideas of Bridges(1991) on transition provide a good understanding of what is going on when an organizationalBridge’s Transition Model change takes place. He differentiates between change and transition, according to him Change is a situational and happens without people transitioning and transition is psychological and is a three phase process where people gradually accept the details of the new situation and the changes that come with it. ENDING NEUTRAL ZONE NEW BEGINNING End what ‘used to be’; identify Individuals within the Gain acceptance of the who is losing what, openly organization feel disoriented purpose; Communicate a acknowledge the loss, mark with falling motivation and picture of how the new the endings and continuously increasing anxiety. Ensure that organization will look and feel repeat information about what people recognize the neutral ; Communicate and gain a is changing and why. zone and treat it as part of the step-by-step understanding of organizations change process. how the organization will change Benefits Limitations 1. You can use the model to 1. While the model is useful for understand how people feel as you implementing change, its not a guide them through change. It substitute for other change clarifies the psychological effect of management approaches. It cant change. be used as an independent change management model. More at : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/bridges-transition-model.htm
Roger’s Technology Adoption Curve The technology adoption lifecycle model, based on his theory of diffusion of innovation(1962), describes the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups. The process of adoption over time is typically illustrated as a classical normal distribution or "bell curve." The model indicates that the first group of people to use a new product is called "innovators," followed by "early adopters." Next come the early and late majority, and the last group to eventually adopt a product are called "laggards.” The curve creates the foundation of 5 step process of technology adoption- Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation, Confirmation Benefits Limitations 1. Helps in creating an understanding 1. People need not fall into one Change of the audience for change. Adoption Category; they drift from 2. Provides inputs to identify opinion category to category depending on the makers and influencers. specific change/innovation. 2. The adoption terms are accurate only in hindsight; they tell you nothing about how a population might respond to a change/innovation. More at : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations
The Change Curve is based on a model originallyKubler- Ross Five Stage Model developed in the 1960s by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross to explain the grieving process. She proposed that aThe Change Curve terminally ill patient would progress through 5 stages of grief when informed of their illness. By the 1980s, the Change Curve was a firm fixture in change management circles. The curve, and its associated emotions, can be used to predict how performance is likely to be affected by the announcement and subsequent implementation of a significant change. Limitations 1. Not all change is bad. This model assumes the worst reaction to Benefits change. 1. An individual’s reaction to change is 2. It is difficult to identify the well captured, this forms a good transition between stages. foundation to develop 3. Difficult to apply to a group communication strategy More at : http://www.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/humanresources/documents/learningdevelopm
Developed in 1998 by Prosci, after research with more than 300 companies undergoing major change projects. Prosci’s ADKAR Model ADKAR is a goal-oriented change management model that allows change management teams to focus their activities on specific business results. The model was initially used as a tool for determining if change management activities like communications and training were having the desired results during organizational change. Benefits 1. It encapsulates the business/process dimension of change and the individual dimension of change 2. Provides a clear management checklist to manage change Limitations 1. Misses out on the role of Leadership and principles of programme management to create clarity and provide direction to chnageMore at : http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-adkar-overview.htm
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