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John Adams ppt


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John Adams ppt

  1. 1. John Adams
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives 1. Summarize the difficulties that John Adams faced during his presidency 2. Summarize the nations developing foreign policy with France and Great Britain 3. Identify some of the deep divisions between Federalists and Republicans
  3. 3. Adams’ turn?? • Adams as VP: active as President of the Senate – more tiebreaking votes (31) than any other VP – spent more time in Senate presiding than any other VP • Greatly frustrated by the job: “Gentlemen, I feel a great difficulty how to act. I am Vice President. In this I am nothing, but I may be everything.” What does he mean????
  4. 4. Election of 1796 • For 1st time in U.S., two political parties square off – Federalists (Adams) vs. Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) • Negative campaign ads  – Adams is called “His Rotundity” – Jefferson labeled a coward and atheist • Problem Pres and VP from different parties • sectionalism  voting according to where one lives – North chose Adams – South chose Jefferson • Adams: has tough act to follow • Adams takes over, there are now 16 states Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee
  5. 5. Tough Act To Follow • How do you follow greatness? • Adams keeps Washington’s cabinet – More loyal to Hamilton than himself • His own V.P is from a different party
  6. 6. War with France? • French upset about the Jay Treaty, see it as Treaty violation of alliance of 1778 • French leaders (The Directory) refuse to receive Directory American ambassador Pinckney • French navy begins seizing American ships bound for Britain • Adams calls for a military buildup (naval) in case war is necessary • Federalists  happy with Adams • Democratic-Republicans  outraged “war-whoop”
  7. 7. Alien and Sedition Acts • Naturalization Act – time to become a citizen 4  14 years – Repealed 1802 • Alien Friends Act – president can deport any alien they feel is “dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S.” – Expired in 2 years • Alien Enemies Act – president can apprehend and deport any “resident alien” if their home country is at war with the U.S. – Remains in effect today  50 U.S.C. 21 - 24 • Sedition Act - prohibited expression of “false, scandalous, and malicious statements” against the government – Expired 1801 • 18 had been charged and 12 convicted under the law (incl. NJ man who made fun of Adams posterior – arrested and fined $150) • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Madison and Jefferson Resolutions secretly wrote these resolutions proposing nullification
  8. 8. XYZ Affair and undeclared war • Adams sends 3 men: – Pinckney, Marshall (future Chief Justice of Supreme Court) and Elbridge Gerry to France  “secret” peace mission • 3 low-level French officials known as “X, Y, and Z” – demand payment (bribe) of $250,000 to let the Americans meet with top French foreign minister – official apology from President. • Word leaks out  “XYZ Affair” • Leads to ANTI-French feelings in U.S.; – “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” – undeclared war for 2 years – Congress creates navy and authorizes American ships to seize French vessels – Washington called out of retirement to lead army
  9. 9. • • • • • Election of 1800 Rematch  Adams (Pinckney) v. Jefferson (Burr) The death of Washington, in 1799, weakened the Federalists Hamilton tried to sabotage Adams' campaign in the hope of boosting Pinckney's chances of winning. In the end, Adams lost narrowly to Jefferson by 65 to 73 Adams was defeated because of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. better organization by the Republicans Federalist disunity the controversy of the Alien and Sedition Acts the popularity of Jefferson in the south the South's inflated number of Electors, which counted slaves under the three-fifths compromise.
  10. 10. Midnight Judges • On his way out of office, Adams passed some legislation to help ensure Federalist power in the judicial branch • Judiciary Act of 1801 created a set of federal appeals courts between the district courts and the Supreme Court. – 1st to remedy the defects in the federal judicial system inherent in the Judiciary Act of 1789 – 2nd to enable the defeated Federalists to staff the new judicial offices with loyal Federalists in the face of the party's defeat in presidential and congressional elections in 1800. • Adams filled the vacancies created by this statute by appointing a series of judges, whom his opponents called the "Midnight Judges" – most of them were formally appointed days before the presidential term expired. – Most of these judges lost their posts when the Jeffersonian Republicans enacted the Judiciary Act of 1802
  11. 11. Adams Recap Click here For video