Leadership Pendleton 2011 Presented by: Jackie Reynolds, Pendleton Historic Foundation
Leadership Pendleton 2011 Presented by: Jackie Reynolds, Pendleton Historic Foundation
house Leadership Pendleton 2011 Presented by: Jackie Reynolds, Pendleton Historic Foundation
Leadership Pendleton 2011 Presented by: Jackie Reynolds, Pendleton Historic Foundation
Pendleton History presentation 2011
History Of Pendleton, SC Time Line & Pictorial History Leadership Pendleton 2011 Class
Pendleton On the Frontier 1777 – 1800 1777 Indians who sided with British during Revolution vacated their lands in SC upstate after major defeat to the patriots. 1785 Signing of Peace Treaty at Treaty Oak with Cherokee, Choctaws and Chickasaw officially ceding their lands in South Carolina 1785 Gen. Andrew Pickens builds a large log house on 573 acres and establishes Hopewell Plantation. As a county commissioner, helped establish Pendleton Village 1788 South Carolina officially becomes a State 1789 Pendleton & Greenville Counties established from Indian lands (Pendleton = TriCounty Area) Samuel Loftis, Pendleton County’s first Sheriff, built 2-story building on lands that later became Ashtabula Plantation. Loftis as a commissioner helped establish Pendleton village. John Miller built his house As a commissioner, helped establish Pendleton Village Hopewell-Keowee Presbyterian Church founded by Andrew Pickens in Pendleton County 1790 Village of Pendleton founded at Pendleton county courthouse site and a temporary log courthouse was built N. of the current public square. Land sale listed in Book A, Pg1. 1791 Pendleton & Greenville merged to form Washington county with Pickensville as courthouse town. 1793 First mercantile firm of Wadsworth, Turpin and Steele established in Pendleton by Wm Steele on S. side public square. Steele was Pendleton’s first postmaster, post office in store. Lowther Hall, oldest house still existing in Pendleton, built by Wm. Hunter.
Pendleton: 1800-1830 The Upcountry Center of Culture, Trade and Commerce 1800 <ul><li>Pendleton District established when Washington County divided into Pendleton and Greenville Districts due to large population growth in area. </li></ul><ul><li>Village of Pendleton became designated as courthouse site with 55 town lots established. Low country planters began purchasing land in area to build large summer plantation homes and permanent residences. </li></ul>1802 <ul><li>Hopewell Presbyterian Church, now known as Old Stone Church, completed replacing the 1789 wood structure that burned in 1797. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Maverick builds “Montpelier” E. of town on 4,400 acres. </li></ul>1805 Andrew Pickens vacates Hopewell to move to Tomassee since Pendleton Village was become too populated. 1807 <ul><li>Inauguration of Miller’s Weekly Messenger (John Miller, Publisher), westernmost newspaper in the nation at the time. Became the Pendleton Messenger after his death and later taken over by Fred. Symmes as publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Maverick buys mercantile business of Wadsworth, Turpin and Steele, buys much land becoming one of the largest landowners in the state. </li></ul>~1810 <ul><li>New permanent brick courthouse build on public square. </li></ul><ul><li>First jail built on public square </li></ul><ul><li>Circulating library founded with public money. </li></ul>1812 – 1814 Many wealthy Charlestonians continued to built summer Plantations in Pendleton area to escape the fear that Charleston would be burned by the British as was Washington in War of 1812.
Antebellum South Carolina Economy <ul><li>Mid 1820’s - End of Low Country’s golden age of rice due to competition of cheap Indian rice in European market, replaced by sea island cotton (no ginning required) </li></ul><ul><li>1800 – 1840 -Invention of workable cotton gin made upland cotton (short-staple) cost effective cash crop in the Upstate </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in mid 1830’s - Low cotton prices and depletion of soil caused many planters sons to move further west for new lands </li></ul><ul><li>By 1840, no longer the leading cotton producing state </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-business climate prevailed although 18 small textile factories emerged in Upstate to compete with New England </li></ul><ul><li>By 1850, Charleston no longer part of direct European trade route, became satellite of NY, Boston and Philadelphia ports </li></ul>
Pendleton, SC First Summer Resort 1815 - 1830 1815 Pendleton Farmer’s Society founded, Thomas Pinckney first President (still in operation) 1819 St. Paul’s Episcopal Church organized by new residents from the Low country 1821 New two-story brick jail built off the square on W. Queen St. (now a residence, Marshalsea) 1822 St. Paul’s Church sanctuary completed 1824 <ul><li>New larger Presbyterian Church built on E. Greenville St. to be closer to town replacing the Old Stone church </li></ul>1825 <ul><li>Male Academy established on land where Town Hall and Anderson School Dist 4 buildings now located </li></ul><ul><li>John C. Calhoun & family moves from Abbeville to buy Clergy Hall and establishes Ft. Hill Plantation. House will be enlarged over the years. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis Ladson Gibbes and wife Maria Drayton Gibbes begin building the “big house” at Ashtabula Plantation. </li></ul>1826 <ul><li>New Courthouse to be begun on public square but Legislature voted to divide Pendleton District into Anderson and Pickens Districts due to population growth. Pendleton continued to serve at courthouse town until 1828 when the two new courthouses completed. </li></ul>1828 <ul><li>New jail sold and converted to Female Academy. </li></ul><ul><li>Courthouse purchased by Farmer’s Society as new meeting hall. </li></ul>1829 John C. Calhoun sworn in as Andrew Jackson’s Vice President, resigned in 1831.
Pendleton ~ 1826 Largest Town in Pendleton District
Pendleton 1830 – 1848 1830 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney completed the house at Woodburn Plantation 1830 – 1834 James Butler Bonham practices law in Pendleton prior to going to Texas where he second in command at the battle of the Alamo. 1832 <ul><li>John C. Calhoun elected to US Senate from SC. Advocated Nullification /states rights </li></ul><ul><li>Wm. Knauff, cabinet maker from Charleston, set–up shop, brought by Mrs. Calhoun. </li></ul>1832-1833 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney became Lt. Gov. under Gov Hayne during nullification crisis Famous Duel between Benj. F. Perry of Greenville Sentinel (Unionist) & Turner Bynum (Nullifier) on island in Tugaloo River. Bynum mortally wounded, buried at St. Paul’s 1834 Pendleton Methodist Church founded 1835 Pendleton Jockey Club chartered 1838 Pendleton Manufacturing Co. incorporated as textile mill by Enoch B. Benson, W.H.D. Gaillard, and the Sloans (John T., Thomas M., Benjamin F.) located S. of town in what is now LaFrance. One of first in SC. 1839 John C. Calhoun became president of Pendleton Farmer’s Society 1840 Pendleton Methodist Church building completed, burned in 1939. 1842 Pendleton Baptist Church founded and church built, building replaced in 1951. By 1850 As many as 20 plantations surround the town of Pendleton, most now gone
Pendleton Area Plantations Houses and Antebellum Houses - No longer Existing <ul><li>Altamont, Altamont II, Alexander, Arcadia, Boscobel, Campobello, Chestnut Hill, Cherry Hill, Flat Rock, Cold Spring, Grumblethorpe Hall, Keowee, Long House, Mount Jolly, Mountain View, Oaklawn, Pepperino, Portman Shoals, Rivoli, Rossdale, Rusticello, San Salvador, Seneca, Shady Side, Silver Glade, Tanglewood, Tip Top, The Hive, Vacambrose, Westville, Wheatland </li></ul>
Plantation Houses and Antebellum Houses In Existence To day <ul><li>Ashtabula, Bee House, Benson House, Boxwood, Carver Randall House, Edans House, Elam Sharp House, Fort Hill, Gaillard House, Gallows Hall, Liberty Hall, Mi Casa, James Hunter House, Hopewell, Jenkins House, Lowther Hall, Magnolia Hall, Marshalsea, Montpelier, Poe House, Simpson House, Sitton House, The Glenn, The Retreat, Thomas Pickens House, </li></ul><ul><li>Vine Hill </li></ul>
Pendleton 1848 - 1861 1848 <ul><li>Mrs. John C. Calhoun leads drive to raise funds to purchase a pipe organ for St. Paul's. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Maverick’s house “Montpelier” burns and rebuilt on same site. </li></ul>1850 <ul><li>Second oldest commercial building still standing on public square build by Jesse Lewis as a store (now known as Hunter’s Store) </li></ul><ul><li>John C. Calhoun dies in Washington, returned to SC and buried with great ceremony in St. Phillips’s churchyard in Charleston </li></ul>1852-5 <ul><li>Rev. John Adger, Presbyterian minister from wealthy Charleston family, buys and expands Woodburn Plantation. </li></ul><ul><li>James T. Latta buys and expends Ashtabula Plantation. </li></ul>1854 Originally the dream of John c. Calhoun in the 1830’s, construction finally begins on the Blue Ridge Railroad to run between Anderson and Knoxville and ultimately to Cincinnati to connect Charleston and the Upstate with emerging markets in the north. 1858 Blue Ridge Railroad finished through Pendleton connecting Pendleton with Anderson via rail. 1859 Construction on Blue Ridge Railroad halted N. of Walhalla (Stumphouse Tunnel) by the high cost on construction (fraud, the high price of imported iron, lack of local engineering expertise) and the subsequent withdrawal of funding by the State. 1860 New Guard house (jail) and market house built on public square.
Pendleton - Civil War Years 1860 South Carolina succeeded from the Union, the first state to do so, setting the stage for the beginning of the Civil War. 1861 <ul><li>Many Charlestonians & residents of Columbia took refuge in Pendleton during war years since no conflict in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Ridge House (hotel) in downtown Pendleton advertised in Charleston newspaper as alternative to popular Northern summer resorts and very accessible via Blue Ridge railroad </li></ul><ul><li>The Adger family from Charleston acquired four plantations in Pendleton, Woodburn, Ashtabula, Boscobel and Rivoli as their war refuge. </li></ul>1861-65 The bell at St. Paul’s would toll out the bad news when the train brought word of a local death. The bell was later donated to be melted down to make ammunition. May 1865 <ul><li>Sherman’s troops commanded by Gen. Geo. Stoneman came through Pendleton in search of Jefferson Davis and the Confederate treasury. (“Stoneman’s Raid”) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of people who took refuge in Pendleton left after the war, many never to return. </li></ul>
Pendleton – Reconstruction Years 1865 – 1871 Climate of terrorism existed across state and particularly in Upstate as white Democrats rebelled against government by Republicans and freed former slaves. 1868 Thomas Green Clemson, in his capacity with the Farmer’s Society, begins advocating the establishment of an agricultural college to teach improved farming methods. 1870 <ul><li>A.M.E. Church established with church on Vance St. behind Hunter’s Store, replaced in 1957 by present A.M.E. King’s Chapel. </li></ul><ul><li>James Hunter purchases Lewis’s store on town square which operates until new store built next door in 1929. </li></ul>1873 Jesse Cornelius Stribling (Rossdale and later Sleepy Hollow farm) had first registered herd of Jersey cattle in SC and one of first in SE. – The beginning of SC dairy industry. Cattle continues to be Anderson County’s primary agricultural product. 1874 Silver Springs Baptist Church established at foot of Hunter’s Hill on old road to Clemson. New church built in 1926 on new road to Clemson. 1876 “ Red Shirt” brigades from towns all over state supported Wade Hampton III election to Governor under the slogan “Force without Violence” that helped end reconstruction. 1877 One of last two states to be released from military rule under reconstruction
Pendleton at the End of 19 th Century 1880 Hunter’s store wooden warehouse built behind Hunter’s Store (still standing) 1882 Jane Edna Harris Hunter, African-American activist and reformer, born on Woodburn Farm and later founded the Phyllis Wheatley Assoc. after moving to Cleveland, OH. Recognized by Ohio as one of its top 20 “Heroes”. 1889 <ul><li>Clemson Agricultural College founded under the terms of Thomas Green Clemson’s will and welcomed first class in 1893 including Gov. Tillman’s son. </li></ul><ul><li>A. T. Smythe, member of Adger family & owner of Woodburn, was one of Clemson’s first Trustees and watched the building of the campus from Woodburn’s “widow’s walk”. </li></ul><ul><li>Atlanta – Charlotte Air Line Railroad (now Norfolk Southern) built the main line to the NE through Seneca, and Central completely bypassing Pendleton thereby creating an economic development disaster for the town located only on a branch line connecting through Anderson. </li></ul>1893 Present Presbyterian Church built on S. Broad St. Rev. John Adger delivered the last sermon at the old church and first at the new church. 1893 Blue Ridge Plant of the Pendleton Manufacturing Co. (textile co.) built on Blue Ridge St 1896 Clemson College fielded its first football team.
Pendleton in Early Twentieth Century 1907 April Fools day student “strike” by a large number of Clemson cadets in “drag” included a march to Pendleton resulted in the formation of the “Pendleton Guards” and an annual student event in Pendleton. Town of Clemson yet to emerge. 1911 One story addition to the Guard House, building later housed the Pendleton Library. 1920’s The high cotton prices, diverting land from food production and leading to a high cost of living, setting the stage for the devastating effects of the boll-weevil & great depression. 1929 SC28 Hwy through Pendleton widened, paved (formerly dirt), and rerouted in places impacting town square and frontage of historic structures in town. 1930’s <ul><li>Many of the large antebellum houses could not be maintained and became “apartment houses” for tenant farmers owned by absentee landlords and often housing 2-3 families. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant farmers flocked to the textile mills as boll-weevil devastated cotton crops </li></ul>1935 Federal Government through Resettlement Act purchased 29,625 acres (about 150 farms) of worn-out, eroded farm land and leased it to Clemson College for their use and remediation. (Woodburn was included in this buy-out). Lands deeded to Clemson in 1954. 1947 - 1950 Pendleton town fathers persuaded Milliken to build their new finishing plant and later the Garish Milliken plant just outside Pendleton bringing jobs to Pendleton. 1950’s US76 Hwy improvement project bypassed downtown Pendleton, passing through Woodburn Farm instead, thus preserving its historic town square and character. ~ 1958-1961 US Corp of Engineer’s Lake Hartwell project to dam the Savannah River and flood a proposed 9,000 acres of farm land, mostly belonging to Clemson College, did result in the flooding of the ruins of many of antebellum plantation houses along the Seneca River.
Beginning of Economic Development and Tourism in 1960’s <ul><li>Foundation for Historic Restoration in the Pendleton Area (name later changed to the Pendleton Historic Foundation) founded by members of Clemson College Architecture Dept. and Pendleton Farmer’s Society to preserve Woodburn (owned by Clemson University) and other historic structures which were in danger of being lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashtabula given to the Foundation for Historic Restoration by Mead Paper Company to preserve it and to serve as a house museum for the interpretation of local culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Tri County Technical College founded with 300 students first year(1962) to help with economic development of Tri County area. Located in Pendleton along US 76 on former Woodburn Farm property. </li></ul>
Expansion of Tourism <ul><li>Clemson University deeds Woodburn to the Foundation for Historic Restoration for Restoration in the Pendleton Area. </li></ul><ul><li>The Foundation for Historic Restoration begins a program to erect Historic Markers in the area beginning with (1) John Ewing Colhoun/Keowee on road from Clemson to Daniel HS (2)Hopewell/Hopewell Indian Treaties on Old Cherry Rd. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendleton District Historical & Recreation Commission established by the SC Legislature to preserve the area’s history and to promote tourism in the Tri-County area. </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for Historic Restoration in conjunction with the Anderson, Greenville, Oconee, and Pickens Historical Societies hosts the Second SC Landmark Conference. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Trust for Historic Preservation sponsors a tour of the Upstate and Pendleton as part of their annual meeting in Charleston . </li></ul>
Pendleton Historic District Established 1972 Pendleton Historic District, the largest in the US at the time, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Bounded on west by Hopewell and Treaty Oak, on east by Montpelier, north by Old Stone Church, south by town limits. Ashtabula and Woodburn were individually listed and opened as house museums .
Map of Pendleton Historic District 6,300 acres extending from Old Stone church to Montpelier (c.1969)
Description from National Register Nomination Form <ul><li>“ The Pendleton Historic District derives its primary significance from the antebellum structures which reflect Pendleton’s early history. Also included in the district are some later 19 th century structures which demonstrate Pendleton’s more recent growth and are, in appearance and feeling, compatible with the earlier periods.” </li></ul>
Revitalization of Downtown <ul><li>Over the years, there have been many proposals to revitalize downtown Pendleton and take advantage of its historic character </li></ul><ul><li>Some have been accomplished, many not due to cost involved </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation ordinances recently established for downtown commercial area that will assist in seeking revitalization grants </li></ul>
Later Economic Development <ul><li>Economic development in the area brought in Westinghouse & Michelin plant (Sandy Springs) and various Clemson Univ. facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The historic “quaint” character of Pendleton continues to attract tourists and new residents. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashtabula and Woodburn Historic House museums attract ~ 10,000 visitors for tours, weddings, and special events. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendleton Spring Jubilee attracts ~30,000 visitors for a 2-day event </li></ul>
What does the Future Hold? <ul><li>Preservation of the historic district’s historic structures and environment must play a key role. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of these historic structures and environment to develop a route to sustainable economic growth </li></ul>
Pendleton Historic Foundation <ul><li>PHF plans to increase visitation at our historic houses from 10,000/yr to 20,000-25,000/yr within 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>By expanding our educational focus and offering monthly special programs and tours </li></ul><ul><li>By refocusing the use of Woodburn for use as a venue for weddings and similar guests sponsored events that include house tours </li></ul>
PHF Historic Pendleton Program <ul><li>Encourage reinstating the famous Pendleton Historic House Tours that held annually or semi-annually since the 1950’s that were discontinued over 10 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging the Town to apply for Preserve America and Certified Local Government status to raise awareness and to make eligible for improvement grants. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the historic downtown for unique tourist oriented businesses. </li></ul>
Pendleton’s Historic Markers <ul><li>Erected in the 1960-70’s by Anderson county, Pendleton Historic Foundation, Pendleton District Commission and other groups. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many historic sites in area yet to have a marker </li></ul>
Pendleton’s Historic Markers On E. Queen/ Town Square
Pendleton’s Historic Markers On Mechanic Street side of Town Square
Pendleton’s Historic Markers On E. Queen St. at N Broad St.
Pendleton’s Historic Markers St. Paul’s Church Yard
Pendleton’s Historic Markers Old Cherry Rd - Clemson
Pendleton’s Historic Markers St. Paul’s Churchyard
Benson House c. mid 1800’s moved from E. Queen st in 1970’s for restoration
Benson House c. (only left portion original) R estoration never accomplished
Elam Sparp House, c 1802 Built by William Steel, 1 st postmaster of Pendleton Boxwood, c. 1800 Built by Dr. Fredrick Symmes, editor of “ Pendleton Messenger”
Marshalsea, c. 1821, built as Jail . Poe House, c. 1860
Ashtabula c. 1825 Old Greenville Hwy Original House c. 1789
Hopewell c. 1785 (Built by General Andres Pickens ) Off Old Cherry Rd. - Clemson
Altamont, c. 1830 Built by Thomas Pinckney (now gone)
Montpelier c. 1849 - Built by Samuel Maverick Old Greenville Hwy, across from Refuge Baptist Church
The Retreat c. 1840’s Located on Danehower Rd.
Hopewell Treaty Marker Old Cherry Rd., before crossing Lake
<ul><li>Non-profit, volunteer-run organization founded in 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Mission: An educational organization dedicated to the restoration and preservation of historic properties in the Pendleton area and the interpretation of the diverse history and cultural heritage of the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation of Ashtabula and Woodburn Historic Houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development and interpretation of these sites as major Upstate heritage tourism sites including living history demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational programs on our region’s contribution to the state’s and nation’s cultural heritage for both young and mature minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic Pendleton & Historic Homeowners Assoc., a community outreach preservation program to provide education and assistance to owners of historic structures in the area </li></ul></ul>
Pendleton Historic Foundation Ashtabula & Woodburn Historic Houses <ul><li>2011 Events: </li></ul><ul><li>Open April – October – Schedule on website </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly – special educational tours & events </li></ul><ul><li>May - Preservation Month – special demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>October – Historic House Tour at Fall Festival </li></ul><ul><li>October - Annual Benefit Gala “Evening under the Stars” – Woodburn </li></ul><ul><li>December (first 2 weekends), Fri-Sat-Sun, before Christmas) “Christmas at Ashtabula” 2-yr winner of Award of Merit by Confederation of SC Local Historical Societies. </li></ul>
Pendleton Historic Foundation Opportunities to Help <ul><li>Volunteer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To act as tour guides so that we can open house museums to the public more often & for special tours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help organize Historic Home Tour at the Fall Festival to benefit restoration of St. Paul’s Church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become a member – dues and admissions provide funds to maintain house museums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent the grounds for your special events . . . weddings, receptions, receptions, graduation dinners, etc. (members receive 10% discount) </li></ul></ul>