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  2. 2. Dry Ingredients inDry Ingredients in BakingBaking 1. Flour1. Flour 2. Sugar 3. Leavening Agent
  3. 3. It is derived fromIt is derived from cereal grains, rootcereal grains, root crops, and starchycrops, and starchy vegetables.vegetables. FLOUR WheatWheat KernelKernel
  4. 4. From the wheat kernelFrom the wheat kernel the following are derived:the following are derived: BranBran – (12%) which is– (12%) which is the hard outer coveringthe hard outer covering Germ or EmbryoGerm or Embryo – (3%)– (3%) contains highlycontains highly concentrated oil, protein,concentrated oil, protein, vitamins and ash.vitamins and ash.
  5. 5. EndospermEndosperm – (85%)– (85%) whichwhich containscontains starch,starch, ash, andash, and fiber.fiber.
  6. 6. Amino acids, glutenin and gliadin - make up the long- make up the long protein strands knownprotein strands known as gluten.
  7. 7. Different baked goodsDifferent baked goods needs varying amountsneeds varying amounts ofof glutengluten. This. This determines the types ofdetermines the types of flour that are milled forflour that are milled for the market.the market.
  8. 8. The bread doughThe bread dough needs the highestneeds the highest percentage of proteinpercentage of protein because of the highbecause of the high glutengluten requirements.requirements.
  9. 9. Classification ofClassification of Wheat FlourWheat Flour
  10. 10. Whole wheatWhole wheat flourflour – It is– It is made bymade by grinding thegrinding the entire kernelentire kernel including theincluding the bran and germ.bran and germ.
  11. 11. It is usedIt is used inin makingmaking breadbread becausebecause of itsof its glutengluten content.content.
  12. 12. Bread flourBread flour –– this is milledthis is milled from hard orfrom hard or soft wheatsoft wheat blend. It is alsoblend. It is also called strongcalled strong flour and hardflour and hard flour.flour.
  13. 13. It’s protein content rangesIt’s protein content ranges from 12% to 14%. It has anfrom 12% to 14%. It has an off-white granular granular texture.
  14. 14. BreadBread
  15. 15. Loaf BreadLoaf Bread
  16. 16. Coconut BreadCoconut Bread
  17. 17. Roasted Garlic Bread
  18. 18. All-purposeAll-purpose flourflour – this– this is alsois also known asknown as the familythe family or general-or general- purposepurpose flour.flour.
  19. 19. It is madeIt is made weaker thanweaker than bread flour sobread flour so that it can bethat it can be used for makingused for making pastries.pastries. Its protein content variesIts protein content varies from 10% to 11%from 10% to 11%
  20. 20. Cake FlourCake Flour –– as soft flouras soft flour wheat flourwheat flour because ofbecause of its weak orits weak or low glutenlow gluten content.content.
  21. 21. CakesCakes
  22. 22. Pastry FlourPastry Flour – also– also classified as softclassified as soft wheat flour. It haswheat flour. It has the same creamythe same creamy white color aswhite color as bread flour, butbread flour, but not as pure asnot as pure as cake flour.cake flour.
  23. 23. Pastry DoughPastry Dough
  24. 24. Self-rising flourSelf-rising flour – a white– a white flour which has beenflour which has been blended with bablended with bakingking powder or bakinpowder or baking sodag soda and sometimesand sometimes with acidwith acid salt.salt.
  25. 25. Self-risingSelf-rising CakesCakes
  26. 26. Enriched flourEnriched flour –– a whitea white flour with nutrientsflour with nutrients added to it.added to it.
  27. 27. Bran flour – consists ofconsists of bran flakesbran flakes added to theadded to the flour. It canflour. It can come I eithercome I either fine or coarsefine or coarse texture.texture.
  28. 28. Instant or QuickInstant or Quick mixing flourmixing flour – it is– it is processed byprocessed by moistening and re-moistening and re- dripping the flour.dripping the flour.
  29. 29. High Gluten flourHigh Gluten flour – flour– flour with high proteinwith high protein content.content.