20100820080852 lecture 5 (problem-hypothsis-research design )


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20100820080852 lecture 5 (problem-hypothsis-research design )

  1. 1. Focus of the DiscussionFocus of the Discussion Statement of The Problem Objective of the Study Formulation Hypothesis /Theory Chose Research Design
  2. 2. Statement of the ProblemStatement of the Problem Systemic research begins with a problem. Selecting and formulating a problem is one of the most important aspects of doing research in any field. A research problem is exactly that-a problem that someone would like to research. A problem can be anything that a person finds unsatisfactory or unsettling, a difficulty of some sort, anything this not working as well as it might.
  3. 3. Statement of the ProblemStatement of the Problem (CONT)(CONT) Research problem should be defined clearly. A researcher must decide the general problem area. The researcher also should have knowledge or experience in the area in order to ask questions that can be answered through question
  4. 4. Research ObjectivesResearch Objectives In general ,research objectives refer to the goal of study .  Research objectives exactly what the researcher wants to do. In empirical research there is a relation between research question and research objectives
  5. 5. Research Question Research Objectives 1. How socio-cultural norms influence in rural women’s education as well as their empowerment? 2. How does gender based factors influence rural women’s education as well as their empowerment? 3. Is there any relationship between Purdah-related norms and women’s education as well as their empowerment? 4. What is the relationship between education and women’s decision- making power at the house hold level? 5. What are the factors that might affect women’s decision-making power (empowerment) at the household level? 1. To examine the awareness of gender-based factors in rural women’s education as well as their empowerment. 2. to identify the role of the practice of Purdah-related norms and its influence on rural women’s education as well as their empowerment. 3. To examine the role of education and how education might help in increasing the level of women’s decision-making power at the household level. 4. To determine the factors that might affect women’s decision- making power (empowerment) at the household level.
  6. 6. Formulation of HypothesisFormulation of Hypothesis A hypothesis is a fact whose truth has not yet been established. The title of this section may not always be Hypotheses of the Study, but may be entitled Research Questions. If the study title requires hypothesis, the researcher may formulate hypothesis and hypothesis must be tested. After testing the hypothesis if it is proved as the truth then hypothesis become theory.
  7. 7. Formulation of Hypothesis (Cont)Formulation of Hypothesis (Cont) The title of the research will change as the nature of the research changes. Experimental studies typically have both research hypotheses and statistical hypotheses. Descriptive and historical (Qualitative) studies may have research questions only.
  8. 8. Example of HypothesisExample of Hypothesis There is a relation between women education and empowerment There is a relation between women’s high ambition and divorce Men are more likely to be doctor and engineer rather than to be a teacher. Men are more aggressive than women
  9. 9. Theory FormulationTheory Formulation Theory plays an important role in empirical investigation and inquiry . Theory enables researcher to isolate a problem from other interconnected problems. The aim of a theory in modern science is to summarize existing knowledge, to provide an explanation for observed or unobserved events and relationships on the basis of explanatory principles embodied in the theory .
  10. 10. Theories in Social ScienceTheories in Social Science  Gender ideology theory Feminism theory  Behavioral theory Faith theory
  11. 11. Research DesignResearch Design The fourth step is to choose a research design. A research design is important to the actual plan for the data collection and analysis of data. A research design is also research methodology. Methodology refers to the broad perspective from which the researcher views the problem, makes the investigation, and draw conclusion. However, researchers have to select a proper research design. Researchers will choose research design based on the nature of the study.
  12. 12. Research Design (Cont)Research Design (Cont) The Researcher needs to follow the some question in planning research design:  What the study is about and the type of data is needed.  Why the study is being made.  Where the necessary data can be found.  Where or in what areas, the study or research will be carried out.  When or what periods of time, the study will include  What basis of selection will be used.  What techniques of gathering data will be adopted.