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  1. 1. Learning Disability Issues • 1. Objective at CAPS To assist students with disability through psychological testing or reviewing previous psychological testing 2. To provide the student with accommodations needed to help them academically. 3. To provide support services such as time management. organizational skills, stress management 4. Additional Information http://www.ets.org/disability/ldpolicy.html#ration
  2. 2. Learning Disability • Learning Disabilities Association of America • http://www.ldanatl.org • If you have a learning disability you are not alone. • Typical learning difficulties include • • • • Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia – often complicated by associated disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  3. 3. Dyslexia • Dyslexia is an impairment in the brain's ability to translate written images received from the eyes into meaningful language. Also called specific reading disability, dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children. • A learning disability is a condition that produces a gap between someone's ability and his or her performance. Most people with dyslexia are of average or above-average intelligence, but read at levels significantly lower than expected. Other types of learning disabilities include attention difficulties, an inability to perform well at writing skills and an inability to perform well at math skills. • Learning disabilities affect about 5 percent of all school-age children in public schools in the United States. The majority of schoolchildren who receive special education services have deficits in reading, and dyslexia is the most common cause.
  4. 4. Dyslexia • Dyslexia occurs in Individuals with normal vision and normal intelligence. Such individuals usually have normal speech but often have difficulty interpreting spoken language and writing. • Dyslexia seems to be caused by a malfunction in certain areas of the brain concerned with language. The condition frequently runs in families. • Treatment may involve a multisensory education program. Emotional support of your child on your part also plays an important role.
  5. 5. Dyslexia Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia • Dyslexia can be difficult to recognize, but some early clues may indicate a problem. • If you have a problem with new words, • and add them slowly • and have difficulty rhyming, you may be at increased risk of dyslexia. • signs and symptoms of dyslexia may become more apparent as children go through school, including: • The inability to recognize words and letters on a printed page • A reading ability level much below the expected level for the age of your child
  6. 6. Dyslexia • Individuals with dyslexia commonly have problems • • • • • • • • • • Processing and understanding what they hear. They may have difficulty comprehending rapid instructions, following more than one command at a time or Remembering the sequence of things. Reversals of letters (b for d) and a Reversal of words (saw for was) are typical among individuals who have dyslexia. Individuals with dyslexia may also try to read from right to left, May fail to see (and occasionally to hear) similarities and differences in letters and words, may not recognize the spacing that organizes letters into separate words, and may be unable to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word.
  7. 7. Dyslexia Screening and diagnosis • There's no single test for dyslexia. Diagnosis involves an evaluation of • • • • • • • medical, cognitive, sensory processing, educational and psychological factors. Its is usual to undergo vision, hearing and neurologic examinations to see whether another disorder may be causing or contributing to your poor reading ability Other evaluation include • Receive a psychological assessment to determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting his or her abilities • Take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of your reading skills analyzed by an expert
  8. 8. Dyslexia Treatment • There's no known way to correct the underlying brain malfunction that causes dyslexia. • Treatment is by remedial education. • Psychological testing will help you identify the areas you need to work on. • You may use techniques involving hearing, vision and touch to improve reading skills. Helping an individual to use several senses to learn — for example, by listening to a taped lesson and tracing with a finger the shape of the words spoken — can help you process the information. The most important teaching approach may be frequent instruction by a reading specialist who uses these multisensory methods of teaching. • If you have a severe reading disability, tutoring may involve several individual or small-group sessions each week, and progress may be slow. An individual with severe dyslexia may never be able to read well and may need training for vocations that don't require strong reading skills. • People with milder forms of dyslexia often eventually learn to read well enough to succeed in school.
  9. 9. Dyslexia • Additional Resources (by clicking on these once should be directed to the site) • International Dyslexia Association http://www.interdys.org/ • Learning Disabilities Association of America http://www.ldanatl.org/ • National Center for Learning Disabilities http://www.ld.org/ • National Institute of Mental Health • http://www.nimh.nih.gov/ • http://www.disabilityresources.org/LD.html http://www.ldresources.org/index.php?cat=23 Statistical data http://www.ncld.org/advocacy/pdf/FLData.pdf
  10. 10. Dyscalculia • Resources: http://www.dyscalculia.org/ • The word "dyscalculia" means difficulty performing math calculations. In other words, it just means "math difficulty". And specifically, it means a learning disability which affects math. Sometimes confusion arises when we start dealing with the term "dyscalculia" as it relates to "special education services". • There are very strict criteria (which can differ quite a bit from State to State) which determine if a student has a learning disability as it is defined by special education rules. • When a student's math difficulties are severe enough to meet this criteria, special education services are indicated. On the other hand, "dyscalculia" has no clearly defined criteria. A student with any degree of math difficulty may be considered to have "dyscalculia" by some educational specialists. This frequently occurs when a student receives an educational evaluation outside of the public school system.
  11. 11. Dyscalculia • Info taken from: http://www.hopkins.k12.mn.us/pages/north /ld_research/dyscalculia.htm
  12. 12. Dyscalculia Strategies for students with dyscalculia: • Work extra hard to "visualize" math problems. Maybe even draw yourself a picture to help understand the problem. • Take extra time to look at any visual information that may be provided (picture, chart, graph, etc.). • Read the problem out loud and listen very carefully. This allows you to use your auditory skills (which may be a strength). • Ask to see an example. • Ask for or try to think of a real-life situation that would involve this type of problem. • Do math problems on graph paper to keep the numbers in line. • Ask for uncluttered worksheets so that you are not overwhelmed by too much visual information. • Spend extra time memorizing math facts. Use rhythm or music to help memorize
  13. 13. Dysgraphia • "Dysgraphia" is a learning disability resulting from the difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. It generally refers to extremely poor handwriting. • Each State has its own criteria which determine if a student has a learning disability as it is defined by special education guidelines. When a student's writing or graphing difficulties are severe enough to meet these criteria, special education services are indicated. • Problems arise because "dysgraphia" has no clearly defined criteria. A student with any degree of handwriting difficulty may be labeled "dysgraphic" by some educational specialists, but may or may not need special education services. • Most learning disabled students experience difficulty with handwriting and probably could be considered "dysgraphic". However, the term is seldom used within public schools because of the lack of any generally recognized or measurable criteria. (everything on Dysgraphia is from) • http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/dysgraphia.html
  14. 14. Dysgraphia Underlying Causes • Students with dysgraphia often have sequencing problems. • Studies indicate that what usually appears to be a perceptual problem (reversing letters/numbers, writing words backwards, writing letters out of order, and very sloppy handwriting) usually seems to be directly related to sequential/rational information processing. • These students often have difficulty with the sequence of letters and words as they write. As a result, the student either needs to slow down in order to write accurately, or experiences extreme difficulty with the "mechanics" of writing (spelling, punctuation, etc.). • They also tend to intermix letters and numbers in formulas. Usually they have difficulty even when they do their work more slowly. And by slowing down or getting "stuck" with the details of writing they often lose the thoughts that they are trying to write about.
  15. 15. Dysgraphia • Students with an attention deficit disorder (especially with hyperactivity) often experience rather significant difficulty with writing and formulas in general and handwriting in particular. This is because ADHD students also have difficulty organizing and sequencing detailed information. In addition, ADHD students are often processing information at a very rapid rate and simply don't have the fine-motor coordination needed to "keep up" with their thoughts. • Some students can also experience writing difficulty because of a general auditory or language processing weakness. Because of their difficulty learning and understanding language in general, they obviously have difficulty with language expression. Recall that written language is the most difficult form of language expression. • Although most students with dysgraphia do not have visual or perceptual processing problems, some students with a visual processing weakness will experience difficulty with writing speed and clarity simply because they aren't able to fully process the visual information as they are placing it on the page.
  16. 16. Dysgraphia SYMPTOMS • Students may exhibit strong verbal but particularly poor writing skills . • Random (or non-existent) punctuation. Spelling errors (sometimes same word spelled differently); reversals; phonic approximations; syllable omissions; errors in common suffixes. Clumsiness and disordering of syntax; an impression of illiteracy. Misinterpretation of questions and questionnaire items. Disordered numbering and written number reversals. • Generally illegible writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the task). • Inconsistencies : mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes, or slant of letters. • Unfinished words or letters, omitted words. • Inconsistent position on page with respect to lines and margins and inconsistent spaces between words and letters. • Cramped or unusual grip, especially holding the writing instrument very close to the paper, or holding thumb over two fingers and writing from the wrist. • Talking to self while writing, or carefully watching the hand that is writing. • Slow or labored copying or writing - even if it is neat and legible
  17. 17. Dysgraphia STRATEGIES • • • • • • • • • • Encourage students to outline their thoughts. It is important to get the main ideas down on paper without having to struggle with the details of spelling, punctuation, etc Have students draw a picture of a thought for each paragraph. Have students dictate their ideas into a tape recorder and then listen and write them down later. Have them practice keyboarding skills. It may be difficult at first, but after they have learned the pattern of the keys, typing will be faster and clearer than handwriting. Have a computer available for them to organize information and check spelling. Even if their keyboarding skills aren't great, a computer can help with the details. Have them continue practicing handwriting. There will be times throughout a student's life that they will need to be able to write things down and maybe even share their handwriting with others. It will continue to improve as long as the student keeps working at it. Encourage student to talk aloud as they write. This may provide valuable auditory feedback. Allow more time for written tasks including note-taking, copying, and tests. Outline the particular demands of the course assignments/continuous assessment; exams, computer literacy etc. so that likely problems can be foreseen. Give and allow students to begin projects or assignments early.
  18. 18. Dysgraphia • • • • • • • • • • Include time in the student's schedule for being a 'library assistant' or 'office assistant' that could also be used for catching up or getting ahead on written work, or doing alternative activities related to the material being learned. Instead of having the student write a complete set of notes, provide a partially completed outline so the student can fill in the details under major headings (or provide the details and have the student provide the headings). Allow the student to dictate some assignments or tests (or parts thereof) a 'scribe'. Train the 'scribe' to write what the student says verbatim and then allow the student to make changes, without assistance from the scribe. Remove 'neatness' or 'spelling' (or both) as grading criteria for some assignments, or design assignments to be evaluated on specific parts of the writing process. With the students, allow abbreviations in some writing (such as b/c for because). Have the student develop a repertoire of abbreviations in a notebook. These will come in handy in future note-taking situations. Reduce copying aspects of work; for example, in Math, provide a worksheet with the problems already on it instead of having the student copy the problems. Separate the writing into stages and then teach students to do the same. Teach the stages of the writing process (brainstorming, drafting, editing, and proofreading, etc.). Consider grading these stages even on some 'one-sitting' written exercises, so that points are awarded on a short essay for brainstorming and a rough draft, as well as the final product. On a computer, the student can produce a rough draft, copy it, and then revise the copy, so that both the rough draft and final product can be evaluated without extra typing. Encourage the student to use a spellchecker and, if possible, have someone else proofread his work, too. Speaking spellcheckers are recommended, especially if the student may not be able to recognize the correct word (headphones are usually included). Allow the student to use cursive or manuscript, whichever is most legible
  19. 19. Dysgraphia • • • • • • • • • • Encourage primary students to use paper with the raised lines to keep writing on the line. Allow older students to use the line width of their choice. Keep in mind that some students use small writing to disguise its messiness or spelling. Allow students to use paper or writing instruments of different colors. Allow student to use graph paper for math, or to turn lined paper sideways, to help with lining up columns of numbers. Allow the student to use the writing instrument that is most comfortable for them. If copying is laborious, allow the student to make some editing marks rather than recopying the whole thing. Consider whether use of speech recognition software will be helpful. If the student and teacher are willing to invest time and effort in 'training' the software to the student's voice and learning to use it, the student can be freed from the motor processes of writing or keyboarding. Develop cooperative writing projects where different students can take on roles such as the 'brainstormer,' 'organizer of information,' 'writer,' 'proofreader,' and 'illustrator.' Provide extra structure and use intermittent deadlines for long-term assignments. Discuss with the student and parents the possibility of enforcing the due dates by working after school with the teacher in the event a deadline arrives and the work is not up-to-date. Build handwriting instruction into the student's schedule. The details and degree of independence will depend on the student's age and attitude, but many students would like to have better handwriting.
  20. 20. Dysgraphia • • • • • • • • • • • Keep in mind that handwriting habits are entrenched early. Before engaging in a battle over a student's grip or whether they should be writing in cursive or print, consider whether enforcing a change in habits will eventually make the writing task a lot easier for the student, or whether this is a chance for the student to make his or her own choices. Beware of overload, the student has other tasks and courses. Teach alternative handwriting methods such as "Handwriting Without Tears." <www.hwtears.com/inro.htm> Writing just one key word or phrase for each paragraph, and then going back later to fill in the details may be effective. Multisensory techniques should be utilized for teaching both manuscript and cursive writing. The techniques need to be practiced substantially so that the letters are fairly automatic before the student is asked to use these skills to communicate ideas. Have the students use visual graphic organizers. For example, you can create a mind map so that the main idea is placed in a circle in the center of the page and supporting facts are written on lines coming out of the main circle, similar to the arms of a spider or spokes on a wheel. Do papers and assignments in a logical step-wise sequence. An easy way to remember these steps is to think of the word POWER. P - plan your paper O - organize your thoughts and ideas W - write your draft E - edit your work R - revise your work, producing a final draft
  21. 21. Dysgraphia • • • • • • • • • • If a student becomes fatigued have them try the following: * Shake hands fast, but not violently. * Rub hands together and focus on the feeling of warmth. * Rub hands on the carpet in circles (or, if wearing clothing with some mild texture, rub hands on thighs, close to knees) * Use the thumb of the dominant hand to click the top of a ballpoint pen while holding it in that hand. Repeat using the index finger. * Perform sitting pushups by placing each palm on the chair with fingers facing forward. Students push down on their hands, lifting their body slightly off the chair. Allow student to tape record important assignments and/or take oral tests. Prioritize certain task components during a complex activity. For example, students can focus on using descriptive words in one assignment, and in another, focus on using compound sentences. Reinforce the positive aspects of student's efforts. Be patient with yourself
  22. 22. A ttention deficit/hyperactivity disorde . • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of chronic disorders that begin in childhood and sometimes last into adult life. • Problems generally associated with ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. They can affect nearly every aspect of life. Children and adults with ADHD often struggle with low self-esteem, troubled personal relationships and poor performance in school or at work. • The best treatment for ADHD is a matter of debate. Currently, psychostimulant drugs are the most common treatment. But although these drugs can relieve many symptoms, they don't cure ADHD. Counseling, special accommodations in the classroom, and family and community support are other key parts of treatment.
  23. 23. ADHD Signs and Symptoms • At various times, ADHD has been called attention-deficit disorder (ADD), hyperactivity, and even minimal brain dysfunction. But ADHD is the preferred term because it more accurately describes all aspects of the condition. Yet changing the name hasn't made ADHD less controversial. • For some time, experts disagreed on how ADHD should be diagnosed — and even on whether it was a real disorder. But in 1998, the National Institute of Mental Health decided that ADHD is a legitimate condition. In addition, most doctors believe that a child shouldn't receive a diagnosis of ADHD unless the core symptoms of ADHD appear early in life — before age 7 — and create significant problems at home and at school on an ongoing basis.
  24. 24. ADHD • • • The symptoms of ADHD fall into two broad categories: Inattention Hyperactivity-impulsive behavior • In general, individuals are said to have ADHD if they show six or more symptoms from each category for at least six months. • These symptoms must significantly affect a persons ability to function in at least two areas of life — typically at home and at school. • This helps ensure that the problem isn't with a particular teacher or only with parents. Children who have problems in school but get along well at home are not considered to have ADHD. The same is true of children who are hyperactive or inattentive but whose schoolwork and friendships aren't affected by their behavior.
  25. 25. ADHD • In most children diagnosed with ADHD, signs and symptoms appear between 4 and 6 years of age, although they sometimes may occur even earlier. They include the following: Inattention • Often fails to pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities • Often has trouble sustaining attention during tasks or play • Often doesn't seem to listen when spoken to directly • Often doesn't follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores or other tasks • Often has difficulty organizing tasks or activities • Often avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework • Often loses things needed for tasks or activities, such as books, pencils, toys or tools • Is often easily distracted • Is often forgetful
  26. 26. ADHD • Hyperactivity-impulsive behavior • Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat • Often leaves seat in the classroom or in other situations where remaining seated is expected • Often runs or climbs excessively when it's not appropriate, or, if an adolescent might constantly feel restless • Often has difficulty playing quietly • Is often "on the go" or acts as if "driven by a motor" • Often talks excessively
  27. 27. ADHD • • • • • Often blurts out the answers before questions have been completely asked Often has difficulty waiting his or her turn Often interrupts or intrudes on others by butting into conversations or games Most healthy children exhibit many of these behaviors at one time or another. For instance, parents may worry that a 3-year-old who can't listen to a story from beginning to end or finish a drawing may have ADHD. But preschoolers normally have a short attention span and aren't able to stick with one activity for long. This doesn't mean they're inattentive — it simply means they're normal preschoolers. Even in older children and adolescents, attention span often depends on the level of interest in a particular activity. Most teenagers can listen to music or talk to their friends for hours but may be a lot less focused about homework.
  28. 28. ADHD • Being different isn't ADHD The same is true of hyperactivity. Young children are naturally energetic — they often wear their parents out long before they're worn out themselves. And they may become even more active when they're tired, hungry, anxious or in a new environment. In addition, some children just naturally have a higher activity level than others. • Every child is unique, with a distinct personality and temperament. Children should never be classified as having ADHD just because they're different from their friends or siblings. • Most children with ADHD don't have all the signs and symptoms of the disorder.
  29. 29. ADHD • Furthermore, symptoms may be different in boys and girls. • Boys are more likely to be hyperactive, • and girls tend to be inattentive. In addition, girls who have trouble paying attention often daydream, but inattentive boys are more likely to play or fiddle aimlessly. Boys also tend to be less compliant with teachers and other adults, so their behavior is often more conspicuous. • At the same time, children diagnosed with ADHD may have some things in common. • They tend to be especially sensitive to stimuli such as sights, sounds and touch, for instance. And when overstimulated, they can quickly get out of control, becoming giddy and sometimes aggressive or even physically or verbally abusive. • Children with the inattentive form of ADHD may seem to drift away into their own thoughts or lose track of what's going on around them.
  30. 30. ADHD Symptoms of ADHD in adults • • ADHD always begins in childhood, but it may persist into adult life. The core symptoms of : • distractibility, • hyperactivity and • Impulsive behavior are the same for adults as for children, but they often manifest differently and far more subtly in adults. • Hyperactivity, in particular, is generally less overt in adults. Children may race around madly; adults are more likely to be restless and to have trouble relaxing. • On the other hand, problems with organization and concentration often increase as people get older and their lives become more complicated and demanding. • Adults diagnosed with ADHD often say that their biggest frustration is their inability to focus and to prioritize, leading not only to missed deadlines but also to forgotten meetings and social engagements.
  31. 31. ADHD • As difficult as this is, the impulsive behavior of some adults with ADHD can be even more problematic. The inability to control impulses, which some experts say may be the defining characteristic of ADHD, can range from impatience waiting in line or driving in heavy traffic to mood swings, intense outbursts of anger and troubled relationships. • One set of guidelines used to diagnose adult ADHD, called the Utah criteria, lists the following as characteristic of adults with the disorder: • • • • • • • A childhood history of ADHD Hyperactivity and poor concentration Inability to complete tasks Mood swings Hot temper Inability to deal with stress Impulsivity
  32. 32. ADHD Treatment • • • • • Optimal treatment for ADHD is a matter of intense debate. Current treatments typically involve therapy, medication or both. Therapy Children and adults with ADHD often greatly benefit from counseling or behavior therapy, which may be provided by a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker or other mental health care professional. Some people with ADHD may also have other conditions such as anxiety disorder or depression. In these cases, counseling may help both ADHD and the coexisting problem. Counseling therapies may include: Psychotherapy. This allows older children and adults with ADHD to talk about issues that bother them, explore negative behavioral patterns and learn ways to deal with their symptoms. Behavior therapy. This type of therapy helps teachers and parents learn strategies (contingency management procedures) for dealing with children's behavior. These strategies may include token reward systems and timeouts. Behavior modification using contingency management techniques has proved especially beneficial for people with ADHD.
  33. 33. ADHD • Family therapy. Family therapy can help parents and siblings deal with the stress of living with a child who has ADHD. • Social skills training. This can help children learn appropriate social behaviors. • Support groups.Support groups can offer adults and children with ADHD and their parents a network of social support, information and education. • Parenting skills training. This can help parents develop ways to understand and guide their child's behavior. • The best results usually occur when a team approach is used, with teachers, parents, and therapists or physicians working together. You can help by making every effort to work with your child's teachers and by referring them to reliable sources of information to support their efforts in the classroom.
  34. 34. ADHD • Medications Drugs known as psychostimulants are the most commonly prescribed medications for treating ADHD in children and adults. Sometimes antidepressants may also be used — especially for adults and for children who don't respond to stimulants or who are depressed or have other problems. • Although scientists don't understand exactly why these drugs work, stimulants appear to boost and balance levels of the brain chemicals dopamine, which is associated with activity, and serotonin, which is associated with a sense of well-being. Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), the primary medication used to treat ADHD, seems to increase levels of dopamine in the brain by blocking the activity of dopamine transporters, which remove dopamine after it has been released. • Besides methylphenidate, ADHD medications include d- and l-amphetamine racemic mixture (Adderall), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and the nonstimulant drug atomoxetine (Strattera).
  35. 35. ADHD • All these medications may help alleviate the core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity — sometimes dramatically. But drugs don't address other problems, such as lack of academic achievement, poor social skills or conflict at home. In addition, some doctors question giving stimulants to young children, especially when no studies have been done to determine the long-term safety of these drugs. • The number of children treated with psychostimulants has increased dramatically in recent years. Many of those children are very young — between 2 and 4 years of age. Yet studies have shown that without behavior therapy and educational services, medication alone isn't likely to be effective in improving a child's long-term outcome.
  36. 36. ADHD • Side effects in adults In general, psychostimulant side effects in adults are similar to those in children. But ADHD drugs are also more likely to cause certain problems specifically in adults, including mild increases in blood pressure that may be significant for people who already have hypertension, and the liver disease hepatitis. In addition, because adults usually require higher dosages of these medications than children do, the risk of abuse or addiction may be greater. • Adults diagnosed with ADHD are far more likely to be given antidepressants than children are. Side effects may include dry mouth, urinary retention, weight gain, drowsiness and sexual dysfunction