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Discussions of ‘chance’ and other related concepts (such as ‘stochasticity’, ‘randomness’, ‘indeterminism’, etc.) are found throughout philosophical work on evolutionary theory. By focusing on three commonly recognized distinctions, I identify four distinct ‘chance’-like concepts: randomness, subjective unpredictability, causal indeterminism, and probabilistic causal processes. These are not, however, merely semantic distinctions: it is demonstrated that conflation of these clearly separate notions undermines one widely-cited argument in the philosophy of biology – in the debate over the interpretation of fitness, natural selection, and genetic drift.