Respiratory system


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Respiratory system

  1. 1. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: EXCHANGE OF GASES PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Robert J. Sullivan , Marist College Human Physiologu
  2. 2. Human Respiratory System Figure 10.1
  3. 3. Components of the Upper Respiratory Tract Figure 10.2
  4. 4. <ul><li>Passageway for respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors for smell </li></ul><ul><li>Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign material </li></ul><ul><li>Moistens and warms incoming air </li></ul><ul><li>Resonating chambers for voice </li></ul>Upper Respiratory Tract Functions
  5. 5. Components of the Lower Respiratory Tract Figure 10.3
  6. 6. <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea: transports air to and from lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi: branch into lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange </li></ul></ul>Lower Respiratory Tract
  7. 7. Gas Exchange Between the Blood and Alveoli Figure 10.8A
  8. 8. Respiratory Cycle Figure 10.9
  9. 9. Regulation of Breathing Figure 10.13
  10. 10. <ul><li>Carotid and aortic bodies: sensitive to carbon dioxide, pH, and oxygen levels </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious control: resides in higher brain centers; ability to modify breath is limited </li></ul>Regulation of Breathing: Nervous System Involvement
  11. 11. <ul><li>Reduced air flow: asthma, emphysema, bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Infections: pneumonia, tuberculosis, botulism </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Congestive heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis </li></ul>Disorders of Respiratory System
  12. 12. Breathing disorders <ul><li>One breathing disorder: </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma or </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>One possible cause </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Inspiration/Expiration: air in/air out </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed state: diaphragm and intercostal muscles relaxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration: diaphragm contracts, pulling muscle down, intercostal muscles contract elevating chest wall and expanding volume of chest, lowering pressure in lungs, pulling in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration: muscles relax, diaphragm resumes dome shape, intercostal muscles allow chest to lower resulting in increase of pressure in chest and expulsion of air </li></ul></ul>Process of Breathing: Pressure Gradient
  14. 14. Pulmonary Function Testing <ul><li>Pulmonary function testing is a valuable tool for evaluating the respiratory system, representing an important adjunct to the patient history, various lung imaging studies, and invasive testing such as bronchoscopy and open-lung biopsy. </li></ul><ul><li>Insight into underlying pathophysiology can often be gained by comparing the measured values for pulmonary function tests obtained on a patient at any particular point with normative values derived from population studies. </li></ul><ul><li>The  percentage of predicted normal  is used to grade the severity of the abnormality. </li></ul><ul><li>often used in clinical medicine for evaluating respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea and cough, for stratifying preoperative risk, and for diagnosing common diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Spirometry Spirometry is the most commonly used lung function screening study. Indications for Spirometry Diagnostic <ul><li>To evaluate symptomsChest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopnea </li></ul><ul><li>Phlegm production </li></ul><ul><li>Wheezing </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate signsChest deformity </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished breath sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Expiratory slowing </li></ul><ul><li>Overinflation </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained crackles </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate abnormal laboratory testsAbnormal chest radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercapnia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxemia </li></ul><ul><li>Polycythemia </li></ul>To measure the effect of disease on pulmonary function <ul><li>To screen persons at risk for pulmonary diseasesSmokers </li></ul><ul><li>Persons in occupations with exposures to injurious substances </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Lung volumes and vital capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal volume: volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a single breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead space volume: the air that remains in the airways and does not participate in gas exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital capacity: the maximal volume that can be exhaled after maximal inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiratory reserve volume: the amount of air that can be inhaled beyond the tidal volume </li></ul></ul>Measurement of Lung Function
  17. 17. <ul><li>Lung volumes and vital capacity (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiratory reserve volume: the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled beyond the tidal volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual volume: the amount of air remaining in the lungs, even after a forceful maximal expiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurement: spirometer </li></ul>Measurement of Lung Function (cont.)
  18. 18. Measurement of Lung Capacity Figure 10.10A
  19. 19. <ul><li>Gases diffuse according to their partial pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External respiration: gases exchanged between air and blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal respiration: gases exchanged with tissue fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen transport: bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells or dissolved in blood plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide transport: dissolved in blood plasma, bound to hemoglobin, or in the form of plasma bicarbonate </li></ul></ul>Gas Exchange & Transport: A Passive Process
  20. 20. <ul><li>Respiratory center in the medulla oblongata: establishes basic breathing pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical receptors: monitor carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and oxygen levels </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla: sensitive to hydrogen ions in cerebrospinal fluid resulting from carbon dioxide in blood </li></ul>Regulation of Breathing: Nervous System Involvement
  21. 21. <ul><li>Breathing (ventilation): air in to and out of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>External respiration: gas exchange between air and blood </li></ul><ul><li>Internal respiration: gas exchange between blood and tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration: oxygen use to produce ATP, carbon dioxide as waste </li></ul>Four Respiration Processes
  22. 22. Go to this link: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>