Pulp

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Pulp

  1. 1. Pulp
  2. 2. <ul><li>The dental pulp is the soft connected tissue that supports the dentin. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Four distinct zone in pulp <ul><li>Odontoblastic zone- at the pulp periphery </li></ul><ul><li>Cell free zone of Weil – beneath the odontoblast </li></ul><ul><li>Cell-rich zone – where the cell density is high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- seen easily in coronal pulp adjacent to the cell free zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp core – characterized by the major vessels and nerves of the pulp </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Odontoblast <ul><li>The most distinctive cell of the pulp and the most easily to recognized. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of odontoblast is estimated in a range of 59,000 to 76,000 per square millimeters in coronal dentin </li></ul>
  5. 8. The cervical loop area: (1) dental follicle cells, (2) dental mesenchyme, (3) Odontoblasts, (4) Dentin, (5) stellate reticulum, (6) outer enamel epithelium, (7)inner enamel epithelium, (8) ameloblasts, (9) enamel.
  6. 9. Fibroblast <ul><li>The cells occuring in greatest number in the pulp </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly numerous in coronal portion of the pulp, wherethey form the cell rich zone. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of fibroblast is to form and maintain the pulp matrix, which consist of collagen and ground substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Appear as flattened spindle-shaped cell with dense nuclei. </li></ul>
  7. 11. Undifferentiated ectomesenchymal cells <ul><li>Represents the pool from which connective tissue cell of the pulp are derived. </li></ul><ul><li>This cell are found throughout the cell-rich area and the pulp core and often are related to blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Appear as large polyhedral cell possessing a large, lightly stained centrally placed nucleus. </li></ul>
  8. 13. Macrophages <ul><li>Tend to be located in the pulp center. </li></ul><ul><li>Appear as a large oval or spindled shaped cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp macrophages are involved in the eliminations of dead cells </li></ul>
  9. 15. Lymphocytes <ul><li>In normal pulps, T lymphocytes are found, but B lymphocytes are scarce. </li></ul>
  10. 16. Dendritic cells <ul><li>Are found in and around the odontoblast layer in nonerupted teeth and in erupted teeth beneath the odontoblast layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Same function as Langerhans’ cells found in epithelium </li></ul>
  11. 18. Matrix and ground substance <ul><li>The extracellular compartment of the pulp or matrix, consist of collagen fibers and ground substance. </li></ul><ul><li>The fibers are principally type I and type III collagen. </li></ul><ul><li>In young pulps, single fibrils of collagen are found scattered between the pulp cell. </li></ul>
  12. 19. Innervation of dentin-pulp complex <ul><li>The dental pulp is innervated richly. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves enter the pulp through the apical foramen, along with the afferent blood vessels, and together with the neurovascular bundles. </li></ul>
  13. 21. Dentin sensitivity <ul><li>On of the unusual features of the pulp-dentin complex is the sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>The extreme sensitivity of this complex is difficult to explain, because this characteristics provides apparent evolutionary benefit. </li></ul>
  14. 22. Pulp stones <ul><li>Pulp stone, or denticles, frequently found in pulp tissue </li></ul><ul><li>They are discrete calcified masses calcium-phosphorus rations comparable to that of dentin. </li></ul><ul><li>May contain tubules and may be surrounded by cells resembling odontoblast. </li></ul>

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