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Module 9a mycology

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Module 9a mycology

  1. 1. Mycology Fungi YeastSlime Molds
  2. 2. Morphology (1)® Spherical - yeast ® Myxomycota -slime® Filamentous - molds molds ® w/ cross wall- septa ® Eumycota - true fungi ---Zygomycotina,® unicellular - yeast Mastigomycotina,® multicellular/branched Ascomycotina, - mushrooms Basidiomycotina &® originally classified Deuteromycotina under plants
  3. 3. Morphology (2):® Thallus - basic ® Mycoherbicides - ability vegetative unit of fungi to parasitize ® cell wall - chitin certain plants; e.g. weeds ® organelles ® Mycelial phase - 20® Dimorphism degrees, fuzzy colony, ® yeast - single nuclei aerial spore ® molds - multi nuclei ® Fungal Phase - 37® Filament --> hyphae degrees, granular ----> mycelium mucoid, no spore
  4. 4. Nutrition & Culture:® Heterotrophic- ® Carbon Source, organic compounds glucose & mineral as C source salts are needed® production of extra- ® Acidic conditions pH cellular enzymes 5-6® Saprobes/saprophytic ® high humidity - majority ® temperature 20-25® Parasites - minority degrees
  5. 5. Reproduction:(1)® Asexual ® Sexual- motile gametes ® budding ® specialized sex organs ® fission - yeast ® vegetative hyphae® Spore - sexual or ® Male antheridium + Female asexual Ascogonium ----> ® sexual spore - Plasmogamy (union of sporangium cytoplasm)---> Karyogamy (fusion of respective ® asexual - fruiting nuclei) bodies
  6. 6. Important members:(1)® Saccharomyces ® Taphrina deformans - cerevisiae- fermentative parasite of vascular plants properties, brewing, e.g. almond rising of dough ® Histoplasma capsulatum -® Penicillin roquefortii - fatal disease - production of cheese histoplasmosis® Penicillin chrysogenum- ® Trichophyton - principal Ab penicillin cause of ringworm / athletes foot
  7. 7. Important members: (2)® Aspergillus flavus - toxins ® Truffles - underground (Aflatoxins) liver cancer fruiting bodies of some in Asians ascomycetes, delicious &® Claviceps purpura - expensive parasitizes rye plant, flour ® Morels - above the & cause abortion in cattle, ground & also edible ® produces ergot - alkaloids used to induce labor & prevent hemorrhage
  8. 8. Deuteromycotina & Basidiomycotina® Deuteromycotina - fungi ® Slime molds - imperfecti ® Cellular® Basidiomycotina - ® Net Mushrooms ® True ® cap, gills , ring, stipe & ® Fungal symbiosis: mycelium ® predation® Slime molds - protozoal & ® parasitism fungal characteristics ® mutualism - lichens (fungi + algae)
  9. 9. Fungal Diseases:(1)® Superficial-cutaneous ® T. barbae - beard cornified layer of skin & ® T. cruris - groin portion of hair ® T. capitis - scalp ® Tinea piedra - B&W ® T. pedis - foot skin ® T. favosa - scalp ® T. nigra - skin/palm ® Subcutaneous - ® T.versicolor- upper torso exclusively from soil ® T. corporis - body --> skin -> S.C. tissue ® T. unguium - nails
  10. 10. Fungal Diseases: (2)® Subcutaneous ® Systemic - from the ® Sporotrichosis epithelium --> ® Lobomycosis circulation ® Mycetoma ® Histoplasmosis ® Chronomycosis ® Aspergillosis ® Rhinosporidosis ® Zygomycosis ® Cryptococcosis ® Torulopsosis
  11. 11. Fungal Diseases: (3)® Opportunistic - ® Diagnosis - ® Diabetes frustrating ® Immunodeficiency ® Treatment- ® Ab therapy chemotherapeutic ® Other infections agents -- Nystatin, Amphotericin,® Immunity - normal Ketoconazole, condition - enough Fungizone, Chloramphenicol

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