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13

  1. 1. Managing Groups and Teams Module 13 LIS 580: Spring 2006 Instructor- Michael Crandall
  2. 2. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 2 Roadmap • Groups and teams • Characteristics of teams • Reasons for team failure • Leading teams • Improving team performance
  3. 3. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 3 Groups and Teams • Group – Two or more persons who are interacting in such a way that each person influences and is influenced by each other person. • Team – A group of people committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which the team members hold themselves mutually accountable. G.Dessler, 2003
  4. 4. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 4 Comparing Work Teams and Work Groups Prentice Hall, 2002
  5. 5. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 5 The Popularity of Teams • Teams typically outperform individuals when tasks require multiple skills, judgment, and experience • Teams are a better way to utilize individual employee talents • The flexibility and responsiveness of teams is essential in a changing environment • Empowered teams increase job satisfaction and morale, enhance employee involvement, and promote workforce diversity Prentice Hall, 2002
  6. 6. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 6 Types of Work Teams Prentice Hall, 2002
  7. 7. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 7 Virtual Team • Virtual Team – Groups of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who interact using a combination of telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task. – Virtual teams may be temporary, existing only to accomplish a specific task. Or they may be permanent and address ongoing matters. – Membership is often fluid, evolving according to changing task requirements. G.Dessler, 2003
  8. 8. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 8 Group Dynamics • Group Norms – The informal rules that groups adopt to regulate and regularize group members’ behavior. • Group Cohesiveness – The degree of interpersonal attractiveness within a group, dependent on factors like proximity, similarities, attraction among the individual group members, group size, intergroup competition, and agreement about goals. G.Dessler, 2003
  9. 9. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 9 What It Takes to Be a Team Player • Personality – Individualism versus collectivism • Interpersonal Skills – Conflict management skills – Collaborative problem solving skills – Communication skills • Management Skills – Develop and establish goals – Control, monitor, provide feedback – Set work roles and assign tasks G.Dessler, 2003
  10. 10. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 10 Team Member Roles Prentice Hall, 2002
  11. 11. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 11 Challenges to Creating Team Players • Managers attempting to introduce teams into organization face the most difficulty: – When individual employee resistance to teams is strong – Where the national culture is individualistic rather than collectivist – When an established organization places Prentice Hall, 2002
  12. 12. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 12 Workforce Diversity’s Effects on Teams • Fresh and multiple perspectives on issues help the team identify creative or unique solutions and avoid weak alternatives • The difficulty of working together may make it harder to unify a diverse team and reach agreements • Although diversity’s advantages dissipate with time, the added-value of diverse teams increases as the team becomes more cohesive Prentice Hall, 2002
  13. 13. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 13 Checklist 13.1 How to Build a Productive Team  Have clear mission/purpose.  Set specific performance goals.  Compose the right team size and mix.  Have an agreed-upon structure appropriate to the task.  Delegate the authority to make the decisions needed, given their mission.  Provide access to or control of the resources needed to complete their mission.  Offer a mix of group and individual rewards.  Foster longevity and stability of membership. G.Dessler, 2003
  14. 14. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 14 Characteristics of High- performing Work Teams Prentice Hall, 2002
  15. 15. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 15 FIGURE 13–3 Why Teams Fail: The Leadership, Focus, and Capability Pyramid Source: Adapted from Steven Rayner, “Team Traps: What They Are, How to Avoid Them.” National Productivity Review. Summer 1996, p. 107. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. G.Dessler, 2003
  16. 16. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 16 Checklist 13.2 Symptoms of Unproductive Teams  Nonaccomplishment of goals.  Cautious, guarded communication.  Lack of disagreement.  Malfunctioning meetings.  Conflict within the team. G.Dessler, 2003
  17. 17. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 17 The Challenge of Team Leadership • Becoming an effective team leader requires: – Learning to share information – Developing the ability to trust others – Learning to give up authority – Knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede • New roles that team leaders take on – Managing the team’s external boundary – Facilitating the team process Prentice Hall, 2002
  18. 18. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 18 Leading Productive Teams • Team Leader Skills – Coaching, not bossing – Help define, analyze, and solve problems – Encourage participation by others – Serve as a facilitator • Team Leader Values – Respecting fellow team members – Trusting fellow team members – Putting the team first G.Dessler, 2003
  19. 19. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 19 Team Leader Roles Prentice Hall, 2002
  20. 20. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 20 Team Leader Behaviors Druskat, V.U. & J.V. Wheeler. (2004). How to Lead a Self-Managing Team
  21. 21. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 21 Typical Leader Transition Problems • Perceived Loss of Power or Status • Unclear Team Leader Roles • Job Security Concerns • The Double Standard Problem G.Dessler, 2003
  22. 22. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 22 Stages of Team Development Prentice Hall, 2002
  23. 23. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 23 The Leader’s Role in Creating a Self-Managing Team • Forming – The teams and their leaders begin working out their specific responsibilities. – Training is the leader’s main task. • Storming – Questions typically arise regarding who is leading the team and what its structure and purpose should be. – The leader ensures that team members continue to learn and eventually exercise leadership skills. G.Dessler, 2003
  24. 24. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 24 The Leader’s Role in Creating a Self-Managing Team (cont’d) • Norming – Team members agree on purpose, structure, and leadership and are prepared to start performing. – The leader’s job is to emphasize the need for the team to temper cooperation with the responsibility to supervise its own members. • Performing – A period of productivity, achievement, and pride as the team members work together to get the job done. • Adjourning G.Dessler, 2003
  25. 25. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 25 How to Improve Team Performance • Select members for skill and teamwork. • Establish challenging performance standards. • Emphasize the task’s importance. • Assign whole tasks. • Send the right signals. • Encourage social support. • Make sure there are unambiguous team rules. • Challenge the group regularly with fresh facts and information. • Train and cross-train. • Provide the necessary tools and material support. • Encourage “emotionally intelligent” team behavior. G.Dessler, 2003
  26. 26. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 26 Providing an Organizational Context That Supports Teams Team WorkTeam Work ApproachApproach Team WorkTeam Work ApproachApproach OrganizationalOrganizational StructureStructure OrganizationalOrganizational StructureStructure OrganizationalOrganizational SystemsSystems OrganizationalOrganizational SystemsSystems OrganizationalOrganizational PoliciesPolicies OrganizationalOrganizational PoliciesPolicies EmployeeEmployee SkillsSkills EmployeeEmployee SkillsSkills G.Dessler, 2003
  27. 27. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 27 FIGURE 13–5 Designing Organizations to Manage Teams Source: Adapted from James H. Shonk, Team-Based Organizations (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1997), p. 36. G.Dessler, 2003
  28. 28. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 28 Pros and Cons of Group Decision Making Pros • More points of view • More ways to define the problem • More possible solutions/alternatives • More creative decisions • Stronger commitment to decisions Cons • More disagreement and less problem solving • Desire for consensus (groupthink) • Domination by a single individual • Less of commitment to the group decision G.Dessler, 2003
  29. 29. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 29 FIGURE 13–7 Signs That Groupthink May Be a Problem Source: Adapted from information provided in Irving James, Group Think: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascos, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982). G.Dessler, 2003
  30. 30. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 30 Improving Group Decision Making • Devil’s-Advocate Approach – The group appoints a person to prepare a detailed counterargument that lists what is wrong with the group’s favored solution and why the group should not adopt it. – The aim is to ensure a full and objective consideration of the solution proposal. G.Dessler, 2003
  31. 31. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 31 Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d) • Brainstorming – A creativity-stimulating technique in which prior judgments and criticisms are specifically forbidden from being expressed and thus inhibiting the free flow of ideas, which are encouraged. – Brainstorming rules: • Avoid criticizing others’ ideas until all suggestions are out on the table. • Share even wild suggestions. • Offer many suggestions and comments as possible. • Build on others’ suggestions to create your own. G.Dessler, 2003
  32. 32. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 32 Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d) • The Delphi Technique – A multistage group decision-making process aimed at eliminating inhibitions or groupthink through obtaining the written opinions of experts working independently. – Process steps • Identify the problem. • Solicit the experts’ individual opinions on the problem. • Analyze, distill, and then resubmit these opinions to other experts. • Continue this process for several more rounds until the experts reach a consensus. G.Dessler, 2003
  33. 33. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 33 Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d) • The Nominal Group Technique 1. Each group member writes down his or her ideas for solving the problem at hand. 2. Each member then presents his or her ideas orally, and the person writes the ideas on a board for other participants to see. 3. After all ideas are presented, the entire group discusses all ideas simultaneously. 4. Group members individually and secretly vote on each proposed solution. 5. The solution with the most individual votes wins. G.Dessler, 2003
  34. 34. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 34 Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d) • The Stepladder Technique 1. Individuals A and B are given a problem to solve, and each produces an independent solution. 2. A and B develop a joint decision, and meet with C, who has analyzed the problem and arrived at a decision. 3. A, B, and C discuss the problem and arrive at a consensus decision, and are joined by D, who has analyzed the problem and arrived at a decision. 4. A, B, C, and D jointly develop a final group decision. G.Dessler, 2003
  35. 35. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 35 Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d) • How to Lead a Group Decision-Making Discussion 1. See that all group members participate and contribute. 2. Distinguish between idea getting and idea evaluation. 3. Do not respond to each participant or dominate the discussion. 4. Direct the group’s effort toward overcoming surmountable obstacles. 5. Don’t sit down. G.Dessler, 2003
  36. 36. May 9, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 36 Next Time • Guest Lecturer: – Martha Choe, Director of Global Libraries Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation – Read the articles, and come prepared to discuss library leadership issues

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