Reasoning•The process of creating or generating conclusions from evidence or premises.
Deductive Reasoning • The process of reasoning from general statements to a certain and logical conclusion related to the conclusion. • There are three parts to deductive reasoning: • Major Premise – general statement • Minor Premise – statement of a specific instance related to the major premise • Conclusion – statement derived from the minor premises relationship to the major premise.
Inductive Reasoning• The process of reasoning from specifics to a general conclusion related to those specifics• Inductive reasoning allows humans to create generalizations about people, events, and things in their environment.
Inductive Reasoning • There are five ways of inductive reasoning • Example Reasoning • Causal Reasoning • Sign Reasoning • Comparison Reasoning • Reasoning from authority
Example Reasoning• Uses specific instances as a basis for making a valid conclusion. • For example, I have taken four good teachers at this college; therefore, all teachers at this college are good.
Causal Reasoning • It is based on the idea that for every action there is a reaction. • There are two forms of causal reasoning: • Cause to effect • Effects to cause
Casual Reasoning• Cause to effect – a known cause or causes is capable of producing some unknown effect or effects.• Effect to cause – some known effect(s) has/have been produced by some unknown cause, or causes.• For example, the professors at this college are good because they all have at least a Master’s Degree in their teaching field.
Sign Reasoning • It involves inferring a connection between two related things, so that presence or absence of one indicates the presence or absence of the other. • For example, football on television is a sign that Fall has arrived.
Comparison Reasoning• It involves drawing comparisons between two similar things, and concluding that, because of the similarities involved, what is correct about one is also correct of the other.• It is also known as reasoning by analogy.• There are two types of comparison reasoning: • Figurative Comparison • Literal Comparison
Comparison Reasoning • Figurative Comparison – the attempt to link similarities between two cases from different classifications. • Literal Comparison – the attempt to establish a link between similar classifications. • For example, people to people, cars to cars, and states to states.
Reasoning From Authority• It is used when a person argues that a particular claim is justified because it is held or advocated by a credible source.• You can use this type of argument in two ways. • You can ask that an argument be accepted simply because someone you consider an authority advocates it. • You can support your arguments with the credibility of another person.
Fallacy • Is an error in reasoning. • An “argument” in which the premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support.