Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
T.C. NECMETTİN ERBAKAN UNIVERSITY
THE INSTITUDE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGETEACHING
LITERAL...
• What is a literal translation?
• Varieties of close translation
• The translation of poetry
• Faithful and False friends...
What is a literal translation?
• A literal translation is a translation that follows closely the form of the
source langua...
Common features of this
translation procedure
a) Maximal closeness to the SL meaning and structure.
b) Conformity to theTL...
Disagreements
Some authors assume that literal translation lead to a
bad translated text, a translated text where the SL
s...
Examples:
Varieties of close translation
1. WORD-FOR-WORDTRANSLATION (CLOSETRANSLATION) =Transferring SL grammar
and word order as w...
LITERALTRANSLATION (CLOSE TRANSLATION) = Literal translation:
• one word to one word (un beau jardin → a beautiful garden)...
The translation of poetry
According to Newmark;
The translation of poetry is the field where most empahasis is normally pu...
• The first step to deal with these problems is to find the deep (underlying)
structure.
• According to Newmark, the usefu...
Example: A poem
Ini kali tidak ada yang mencari cinta
di antara gudang, rumah tua, pada cerita
tiang serta temali, kapal, ...
1. This time there's no one looking for love
among the sheds, old houses, near the tale
of the masts and riggings. Ships (...
• The translations of the first line both are good in the sense that they put the
adverb, "this time" first, but the trans...
Faithful and false friends
• We must not be afraid of literal translation, or, in particular, of using aTL word which look...
• And again, the more general and abstract words ('phenomenon', 'element', 'affair')
may or may not be translated transpar...
Words in their context
• I find you in every woods and gardens.
The words woods and garden are collocates, and the Indone...
ElegantVariations
Elegant variation in poetry may occur because of a translator’s need to use a
word which fits the scansi...
Back-translation test
• A source language word should not be translated into a target language
word which has another obvi...
• the meaning of the term in the back translation does equal the meaning of
the original source.
 English source: to impa...
AcceptedTranslation
Some transparent institutional terms are translated literally in at least
Western European
languages e...
Constraints on literal translation
• If a perfectly natural SL unit produces a clumsy literal translation,
e.g. itne parve...
NaturalTranslation
 I'heure est venue or les maisons basses:
• if you insist you would not normally say 'the hour has com...
The Role Of Context
• Context of situation is closely related to various texts. Certain situational
context asks for certa...
• Seeking the equivalence of meaning is in fact seeking the equivalence of
situational context.
• In translation, equivale...
Literal translation
Literal translation
Literal translation
Literal translation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Literal translation

25,737 views

Published on

LITERAL TRANSLATION / TRANSLATION CRITICISM

Published in: Education
  • Did you try ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐?. They know how to do an amazing essay, research papers or dissertations.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • NEW Study SHOWS: 74% OF Men Are More Attracted To Women Who Do This. Learn More.. ➣➣➣ https://t.cn/A6yxijqE
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • If we are speaking about saving time and money this site ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ is going to be the best option!! I personally used lots of times and remain highly satisfied.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hi there! I just wanted to share a list of sites that helped me a lot during my studies: .................................................................................................................................... www.EssayWrite.best - Write an essay .................................................................................................................................... www.LitReview.xyz - Summary of books .................................................................................................................................... www.Coursework.best - Online coursework .................................................................................................................................... www.Dissertations.me - proquest dissertations .................................................................................................................................... www.ReMovie.club - Movies reviews .................................................................................................................................... www.WebSlides.vip - Best powerpoint presentations .................................................................................................................................... www.WritePaper.info - Write a research paper .................................................................................................................................... www.EddyHelp.com - Homework help online .................................................................................................................................... www.MyResumeHelp.net - Professional resume writing service .................................................................................................................................. www.HelpWriting.net - Help with writing any papers ......................................................................................................................................... Save so as not to lose
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • You have to choose carefully. HelpWriting.net offers a professional writing service. I highly recommend them. The papers are delivered on time and customers are their first priority. This is their website: HelpWriting.net
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Literal translation

  1. 1. T.C. NECMETTİN ERBAKAN UNIVERSITY THE INSTITUDE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGETEACHING LITERALTRANSLATION By İPEKYILDIRIM
  2. 2. • What is a literal translation? • Varieties of close translation • The translation of poetry • Faithful and False friends • Words in their context • Elegant variations • Back-translationTest (BTT) • Accepted translation • Constraints on literal translation • Natural translation • The role of context
  3. 3. What is a literal translation? • A literal translation is a translation that follows closely the form of the source language. • It is also known asWord forWord translation. • Newmark agrees that this technique is the best option for translating texts where the form is as important as the content such as great speeches, autobiographies, literary works.
  4. 4. Common features of this translation procedure a) Maximal closeness to the SL meaning and structure. b) Conformity to theTL grammar.
  5. 5. Disagreements Some authors assume that literal translation lead to a bad translated text, a translated text where the SL structure is reflected in an exaggerated and unwanted way. On the other hand, Vinay & Darbelnet explained, “My thesis is, however, that literal translation is correct and must not be avoided, if it secures referential and pragmatic equivalence to the original.” It can be used when other techniques have failed.
  6. 6. Examples:
  7. 7. Varieties of close translation 1. WORD-FOR-WORDTRANSLATION (CLOSETRANSLATION) =Transferring SL grammar and word order as well as the primary meanings of all SL words • He works in the house - now → Il travaile dans la mansion maintenant 2. ONE-TO-ONETRANSLATION (CLOSETRANSLATION) = Each SL word has a correspondingTL word, but their primary (isolated) meanings may differ. • Hacer un examen → take an exam Word- for-Word translation
  8. 8. LITERALTRANSLATION (CLOSE TRANSLATION) = Literal translation: • one word to one word (un beau jardin → a beautiful garden) • collocation to collocation (make a speech → faire un discours) • clause to clause (when that was done → quand cela fut fait) • to sentence to sentence (The man was in the street → L’homme était dans la rue)
  9. 9. The translation of poetry According to Newmark; The translation of poetry is the field where most empahasis is normally put on the creation of a new independent poem,and where literal translation is usually condemned. • In translating a poem, one of the literary genres, the translator are also likely to face similar problems: • linguistic, • literary and aesthetic, • socio-cultural problems
  10. 10. • The first step to deal with these problems is to find the deep (underlying) structure. • According to Newmark, the useful procedure is to find the logical subject first, and then the specific verb. • If the two important elements are discovered, the rest will fall into place. • After that the translator can reconstruct the structure in theTL as closely as possible to the original structure. • Besides, the structure of each phrase or clause should be examined clearly also.
  11. 11. Example: A poem Ini kali tidak ada yang mencari cinta di antara gudang, rumah tua, pada cerita tiang serta temali, kapal, perahu tidak berlaut, menghembus diri dalam mempercaya mau berpaut (Kasbolah, 1990: 4)
  12. 12. 1. This time there's no one looking for love among the sheds, old houses, near the tale of the masts and riggings. Ships (and) boats (that) have not gone to sea are puffing themselves (out) in the believe (they) will be united. (Kasbolah, 1990: 13) 2. This time no one's looking for love between the sheds, the old house, in the make-believe of poles and ropes. A boat, a prau without water puff and blows, thinking there's something it can catch (Kasbolah, 1990: 12)
  13. 13. • The translations of the first line both are good in the sense that they put the adverb, "this time" first, but the translation of the main clause in the second translation is better for it tries to maintain the poetic structure of the line. • The further we read the lines, the better we can catch the importance of maintaining the structure as an attempt to maintain the beauty of the poem. And finally we may agree that the second translation is more successfully in maintaining the poetic structure.
  14. 14. Faithful and false friends • We must not be afraid of literal translation, or, in particular, of using aTL word which looks the same or nearly the same as the SL word. • But 'theatre’ is theatre, isTheater, is teatro and is teatr only in Czech is it divadlo (the same applies to 'music, where the Czech is hudba). • The translation of objects and movements is usually more literal than that of qualities and ways of moving. • Many common adjectives of feeling cut up meaning in their own way, so that we cannot trust a transparent translation of 'sincere', 'loyal, 'trivial*, 'important', 'truculent', 'brutal'; only one or two like 'excellent and 'marvellous' are usually transparent.
  15. 15. • And again, the more general and abstract words ('phenomenon', 'element', 'affair') may or may not be translated transparently; there is often a shift at that abstract level (quality as 'property') but the translation is still usually one-to-one. • In general, there are more faithful friends and we must not hesitate to use them, since any other translation is usually wrong.This presupposes that, in context, the readership of O andT have similar interest and language levels. Otherwise the translation may well be different. • So, everything is translatable up to a point, but that there are often enormous difficulties.
  16. 16. Words in their context • I find you in every woods and gardens. The words woods and garden are collocates, and the Indonesian equivalents are very similar, hutan and kebun. Even the form is very much similar, the translator must examine first whether the meaning is the same. As it is known, the word woods in US is not exactly the same as hutan in Indonesia in term of the characteristics, area, location, etc. In addition, garden is not always the same as kebun. It may mean taman.The clear examination can only be done if the translator understands the contextual meaning.
  17. 17. ElegantVariations Elegant variation in poetry may occur because of a translator’s need to use a word which fits the scansion and rhyme pattern of the phrase or sentence. Example  Bendicks of Mayfair have established a reputation respected throughout the world for the manufacture of chocolate confectionery of the highest qualify.  Bendicks of Mayfair' ont etabli leur reputation, reconnue dans le monde entier, pour la confection de ckocolats de la plus haute quality. • The translation is lexically and grammatically literal, but for 'confectionery', which has to be changed and is satisfactorily conflated with 'manufacture, and the two unnecessary elegant variations, leur and reconnue.
  18. 18. Back-translation test • A source language word should not be translated into a target language word which has another obvious one-to-one equivalent in the source language. • Back translation involves the translation of a text which itself is a translation back into the original language.
  19. 19. • the meaning of the term in the back translation does equal the meaning of the original source.  English source: to impair Spanish translation: afectar English back translation: to affect
  20. 20. AcceptedTranslation Some transparent institutional terms are translated literally in at least Western European languages even though theTL cultural equivalents have widely different functions: • 'President', 'Senate', 'Prefect', 'Chancellor’, 'Mayor ‘  For these institutional terms, a translator must be careful about translating the terms directly into theTL, if they already exist but have quite different functions in theTL culture,
  21. 21. Constraints on literal translation • If a perfectly natural SL unit produces a clumsy literal translation, e.g. itne parvenait pas a se digager de sa surprise as 'he wasn't succeeding in freeing himself from his surprise, Then the translation is 'wrong', however expressive the rest of the SL text ; 'he was unable to rid himself of his feeling of surprise', 'he couldn't overcome his Surprise’
  22. 22. NaturalTranslation  I'heure est venue or les maisons basses: • if you insist you would not normally say 'the hour has come’ only 'the time has come‘ what we might find an acceptable literal translation of an ordinary language unit is that you find it unnatural.
  23. 23. The Role Of Context • Context of situation is closely related to various texts. Certain situational context asks for certain text and in return, certain text creates certain context. • In the process of translation, the meaning system is largely determined by the context. • Studies in register analysis are of significance to translators. In the translation process, first, through the analysis of the linguistic feature of the SL, its register can be identified and thus the determination of its context of situation is possible. • Second, in the production of theTL, the proper words and expressions in the TL should be chosen so that the corresponding context of situation can be reestablished in theTL.
  24. 24. • Seeking the equivalence of meaning is in fact seeking the equivalence of situational context. • In translation, equivalence should not be based on one aspect of meaning; the translator must pursue the right equivalence. • Since the complete identity of situational context and meaning system between cultures is impossible, the complete equivalence is equally impossible.

×