Supervision: Managing to Achieve Results Chapter 1 Supervision: MeetingChallenges and Obeying Laws
Supervision• Many managers are never formally trained to be managers.• The earliest theories of management primarily consisted of three different views: – the traditional model. – the human relations model. – the human resources model.• The only thing these three theories have in common is that each one attempts to construct a single model of motivation that would apply to every employee in every situation.
Management Models• The traditional model arose in part due to a need to increase worker productivity at the beginning of the twentieth century. – Based on Taylor’s research, he believed, among other things, that more efficient workers should be paid higher wages than less efficient workers.
Traditional Management Model Assumptions Frederick W. Taylor (1856 – 1915)• Most people do not like to work• Most people will avoid work if at all possible• What people do is less important than what they earn for doing it• Few people want or can handle work that requires creativity or self direction
Management Models• The human relations model proposes that managers can motivate their employees by making them feel useful and important.
Human Relations Model Assumptions• Workers want to feel important, valued, and useful• Workers want to belong and to be recognized as individuals• These social needs are more important than money in motivating people to work
Management Models• The human resources model criticized both of the earlier models as being oversimplified and flawed. – Theory X management assumes that people are inherently lazy and need to be driven to perform. – Theory Y management assumes that people basically want to do a good job.• Good managers are up to the task of working with people - helping them, listening to them, encouraging them, and guiding them.
Times are Changing in BusinessThe following factors are creating rapid and constantchange in today’s new business environment• Surge of global competition• New technology and innovation• Flattening of organizational hierarchies• Widespread downsizing, reengineering and layoffs• Rise of small business• Changing values of today’s workers• Increasing demand for better customer service
Management Challenges• Managers today face a new reality in the partnership of managers and workers in the workplace.• Managers are finding out that they can’t command their employees’ best work - they have to create an environment that fosters their employees’ desire to do their best work.• The best employees will leave the old-model companies in droves, seeking employers who treat them with respect and who are willing to grant them greater autonomy and responsibility.
New Functions of Management• The functions of the new manager in the twenty- first-century workplace include: – Trusting employees. – Energizing employees. – Empowering employees. – Supporting employees. – Communicating with employees. – Learning from employees.• You can always learn something from other managers—whether they’re good managers or bad ones.
Improving Your Management Skills• To take advantage of the lessons that you learn, you have to put them into practice. Keep these key steps in mind. – Take the time to assess your organization’s problems. – Take a close look at yourself. – Try out the techniques that you learn from your reading or from observing other managers at work. – Step back and watch what happens.
Laws• There are numerous federal and state employment laws that managers must obey as they go about the business of making daily, routine management decisions.• Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits employment discrimination based on an individual’s sex, race, color, religion, and national origin.
Sexual Harassment• Sexual harassment in the workplace generally occurs in one of two ways: – A manager or a supervisor sexually harasses an employee by virtue of the power held over that employee by promising or withholding a raise or a promotion in return for sexual favors. – Creating a hostile work environment occurs when a manager allows employees to engage in telling dirty jokes or allows employees to circulate offensive pictures, Web sites, or email messages.• Supervisors must have well-established guidelines for preventing the sexual harassment of employees.
Employment Laws• The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) covers five areas: employment, public transportation, public accommodations, telecommunication services, and public services.• Protected groups under the ADA include individuals who – use wheelchairs, walkers, – Are speech, vision, or hearing impaired – Have mental retardation or emotional illness – Have numerous other health issues.• An individual who is disabled but otherwise qualified to perform the essential functions of a job may require a reasonable accommodation . Such accommodations may include: – Minor change in work schedule – Adjustment of policy or procedure – Purchase of a device that would allow the individual to perform the duties of the job
Team Discussion• Divide into 3 teams• Each team is to develop ways in which businesses could make reasonable accommodations for each of the following job applicants: – Team 1 - An applicant for the position of dishwasher who has a hearing disorder – Team 2 - An applicant for the position of sales manager who is wheelchair bound – Team 3 - An applicant for the position of server who lacks use of the left arm• Reasonable accommodations may include: – Minor change in work schedule – Adjustment of policy or procedure – Purchase of a device that would allow the individual to perform the duties of the job
Employment Laws• The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 prohibits discrimination against individuals who are forty years of age and older.• To prevent huge disparities in pay and wages between men and women, Congress passed the Equal Pay Act in 1963.• The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 imposes civil and criminal penalties on employers who knowingly hire illegal aliens.• Many states, cities, and towns have enacted their own civil rights and equal employment opportunity laws
SummaryAs a manager, it is important that you are goodnot only in the technical aspects of your fieldbut also in dealing with others. Empowering,trusting, and supporting your employees areways you can bring out the best in others andimprove your organization. It is also importantthat you are familiar with employment lawsbecause they affect virtually every aspect ofthe employee–employer relationship.
Supervision: Managing to Achieve Results Chapter 2Leadership: Inspiring Others
Leadership• A manager is a person who supervises others in an effort to complete tasks or accomplish goals.• A leader is a person who has commanding authority or influence over others and inspires them toward goals.• Studies show that the primary traits that all effective leaders have in common are – Positive outlook – Forward thinking
Managers vs. Leaders• Being a good manager is quite an accomplishment.• Managers use values, policies, procedures, schedules, milestones, incentives, discipline, and other mechanisms to push their employees to achieve the goals of the organization.• Leaders, on the other hand, challenge their employees to achieve the organization’s goals by creating a compelling vision of the future and then unlocking their employees’ potential.
Leaders• Leaders know that most workers want to feel pride for their organization and, when given the chance, would give their all to a cause they believe in.• Leaders know the value of employees and their critical importance in achieving the company’s goals.• Few managers reward their employees for being creative or for going beyond the boundaries set by their job descriptions.
Communication• Leaders make a commitment to communicate with their employees and to keep them informed about the organization.• Leadership today is a two-way interchange of ideas where leaders create a vision and workers throughout an organization develop and communicate ideas of how best to reach the vision.
Facilitating Achievement• Many managers punish their employees for taking risks and losing, instead of helping their employees win the next time around.• Great leaders support their employees and facilitate their ability to reach their goals.
Facilitating Achievement (cont.) • Great leaders create environments in which employees can feel safe to speak up, to tell the truth, and to take risks.
Optimistic Outlook• Numerous traits of great leaders have remained the same over the years and are still highly valued today.• Great leaders always see the future as a wonderful place.• People want to feel good about themselves and their futures, and they want to work for winners.
Leadership Traits• Great leaders have no doubt - at least not publicly - that they can accomplish any task they set their minds to.• One trait that sets great leaders apart from the rest of the pack is integrity: ethical behavior, values, and a sense of fair play.• When an organization’s leaders conduct themselves with integrity, the organization can make a very real and positive difference in the lives of its employees, its customers, and others who come in contact with it.
Making Decisions• The best leaders are decisive.• Despite the fact that making decisions is one of the key reasons that people are hired to be managers, too few are willing to risk the possibility of making a wrong decision.• Great leaders take whatever time is necessary to gather whatever information, people, or resources they need to make an informed decision within a reasonable time frame.
Collaborative Leadership • A new kind of leadership is gaining traction in an increasing number of organizations. • Collaborative leadership is a leadership style where everyone works together. • This leadership sharing occurs not just with other managers and supervisors, but with employees at all levels.
Team Discussion• Divide into teams• Develop a team definition for collaborative leadership to share with the class.• Explain the process your team used to develop your definition.
Orpheus Process• There is a unique brand of collaborative leadership practiced by New York City’s Orpheus Chamber Orchestra.• At the heart of the Orpheus Process are eight principles.• To survive and prosper, today’s organizations need to get the most out of every employee and every employee needs to take a leadership role in his or her organization.
8 Principles of the Orpheus Process1. Put power in the hands of the people doing the work2. Encourage individual responsibility for product and quality3. Create clarity of roles4. Foster horizontal teamwork5. Share and rotate leadership6. Discover how to listen, discover how to talk7. Seek consensus (and build creative systems that favor consensus)8. Dedicate passionately to your mission
SummaryLeaders inspire others to action by creating avision for a better tomorrow, communicatingthat vision, and listening to input from others.A leader’s vision becomes reality whenemployees are encouraged to take risks and becreative. One way to achieve the best for anorganization is through collaborativeleadership, a leadership style where everyoneworks together and shares the leadership role.
Manager and Leadership Videoshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktWepsb9Ihttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnaOz1TWENQ
Purpose• In most companies, top management sets the overall purpose - the vision - of the organization.• You are much more likely to achieve your vision when you take a planned, goal- oriented approach, communicate this approach, and have the support of other employees.
VisionA vision is the overallpurpose of theorganization. A visionis a long-term, broad,strategic direction thatwill take several yearsto achieve.
Goals A goal is the specific result of an effort to improve an organization in some way. Goals can be short-term or long- term and should also align with the vision of the organization.
Goals• Following are the main reasons to set goals whenever you want to accomplish something significant: – Goals provide direction. – Goals tell you how far you’ve traveled. – Goals help make your overall vision attainable. – Goals clarify everyone’s role. – Goals give people something to strive for.• For goals to be useful, they have to link directly to the final vision.
SMART GoalsThe best goals are SMART goals referring toa handy checklist for the five characteristicsof well-designed goals.– Specific.– Measurable.– Attainable.– Relevant.– Time-bound.
Setting Goals: Less is More• Pick two or three goals to focus on – It’s far better to set a few significant goals and then concentrate your efforts on attaining them. – Simple goals are better goals.• Pick the goals with greatest relevance• Focus on the goals that tie most closely to your organization’s mission• Periodically revisit the goals and update them as necessary
Communicating GoalsGoals must becommunicatedclearly, thereceiver mustunderstand thegoals, and theperformance togoals must befollowed through.
Communicating Goals• Goals must be written down.• Goals are personal, and the methods you use to communicate them must also be personal and direct.• Ask your employees to prepare and present plans and milestone schedules explaining how they can accomplish the assigned goals by the deadlines that you agreed to.• Communicating your organization’s vision is as important as communicating specific goals.
Goal Focused• The process of goal setting often generates a lot of excitement and energy within employees.• Managers must take steps to ensure that the organization’s focus remains centered on the goals and not on other matters.• Staying focused on goals can be extremely difficult—particularly when you’re a busy person and the goals are added on top of your regular responsibilities.
Goals and Results• One of the biggest problems that employees face is confusing activity with results.• A general rule that says that 80 percent of workers’ productivity comes from 20 percent of their activity.• Following are some tips to help you and your employees work on the items that help all of you achieve the company’s goals: – Do your number one priority first! – Get organized! – Just say no!
Achieving Goals• You have the power to make your goals happen.• Everyone has five primary sources of power, and each of you has specific strengths and weaknesses related to these sources. – Personal Power comes from within someone’s character – Relationship Power comes from close friendships – Knowledge Power comes from special expertise and knowledge gained during one’ s career – Task Power comes from the job – Position Power comes from rank or title• Be aware of the sources of your power and use it in a positive way to help you and your employees accomplish the goals of your organization.
Sources of Power• What sources of power does an autocratic and unpopular executive use?• What sources of power does a democratic, well-liked executive use?
SummaryAn organization can live up to its full potentialonly if it sets and strives toward goals that areclosely aligned with the company’s vision. Asyou have learned, these goals must becommunicated effectively and prioritized. Youand other managers can use different sourcesof power to ensure the goals have buy-in fromall employees.