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Spatial planning and urban resilience in the context of flood risk - A comparative study of Kaohsiung, Tainan and Rotterdam

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Spatial planning is increasingly being considered as an important mechanism in coping with flood risk due to climate change. One of the reasons for this is that engineering approaches are increasingly expensive and cannot provide complete certainty of protection against climate-related floods. The thesis examines whether and how spatial planning is used in urban areas to promote resilience to flood
risk and climate change. In this study, planning is considered as the regulation of physical implementation as well as the process of policy-making that guides spatial development. This process mainly involves the interaction and collaboration between actors (both public and private).
The notion of resilience is being used more and more in discussions of complex issues like the impact of climate-related flood risks on spatial development. The interpretations of resilience can vary significantly depending on the local context,
the focus of spatial development and the interests of the actors involved in decision- making. The study proposes six characteristics of planning decision-making that
can help to promote the resilience of cities. These comprise: (i) considering the current situation, (ii) examining trends and future threats, (iii) learning from previous experience, (iv) setting goals, (v) initiating actions, and (vi) involving the public. The importance of these characteristics over time for policy and practice is examined according to empirical evidence from detailed case study analysis. Six case studies are presented, four in Taiwan and two in the Netherlands. In all of the case studies, the issue of flood risk and spatial development is considered important by policy- makers, but the planning strategies used to tackle climate-related flood risks are often different, as are the experiences of flooding and governance arrangements.
The information gathered is primarily based on interviews and the review of planning policies, government reports and research documents.
Comparative analysis is a central focus of the study. The analysis has both a national and international perspective, comparing cases within Taiwan and between Taiwan and the Netherlands. The national comparison examines the way in which local planning governance is addressed in shaping decisions to deal with flood risks. This can vary among cases which share similar spatial development objectives and national institutional framework. The international comparison between Taiwan and the Netherlands examines the roles of planning to promote urban resilience in the context of flood risk and climate change.
Three conclusions can be drawn. First, the interpretation of resilience is dependent on the views and interests of the actors involved. These change over time and can be seen in different episodes of policy-making. Second, the importance of the different

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Spatial planning and urban resilience in the context of flood risk - A comparative study of Kaohsiung, Tainan and Rotterdam

  1. 1. Spatial planning and urban resilience in the context of flood risk A comparative study of Kaohsiung, Tainan and Rotterdam Pei-Wen Lu Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and The Built Environment , Department of Urbanism
  2. 2. has been increasingly affective to urban development The uncertainty of Setting of the study
  3. 3. The notion of resilience is important. It is often used in a mix of mitigation and adaptation Setting of the study
  4. 4. Spatial planning has considered increasingly important in promoting cities to become more resilience for flood risk One of the reasons for this can be explained by a fact that the traditional engineering approach, such as increasing the height of dikes, has become insufficient to provide complete certainty of protection against the uncertain disturbance of flooding. Setting of the study
  5. 5. How spatial planning can promote resilience in the context of the uncertainty of flood risks and climate change? Sub Q1: what are the characteristics of planning which can help to promote resilience? Sub Q2: how has the notion of resilience been absorbed and become part of the reasoning of planning? Sub Q3: to what extent can planning policy-making help to promote the resilience of spatial development in coping with flood risks? Research questions
  6. 6. European or International? [Spatial planning]: In Europe, scholars have had a broader understanding of planning that involves a conformity between policies and physical developments as well as the process that stakeholders address together and initiate a certain decision for spatial development (e.g., Healey, 1997, 2006, 2007, Albrechts et al., 2003, Albrechts, 2004, 2010, Mastop and Faludi, 1997, Faludi, 2000, Nadin, 2007, 2010, Nadin and Stead, 2008, Allmendinger and Haughton, 2010). Studies of spatial planning often focus on the importance of the process of decision-making that leads to a consequence of physical development. Cross-continental research: Methodology
  7. 7. National com. International com. C3: Southern Taiwan Science Park C4: Tainan city centre C1: Meinong C2: Kaohsiung city centre C5: Nesselende C6: Rotterdam city centre to examine whether and how local policy-making reflects these characteristics where each case study share the same national institutional framework to examine the critical elements of planning for flood risk management Methodology
  8. 8. Four planning dimensions Six characteristics of planning to promote resilience Methodology
  9. 9. Meinong STSP Nesselande Collaborative frameworks WRAs Flexible zoning Local Water approach planning National authorities story NGOs & academics Economic approach Local authorities Private enterprise Integrated approach Planning aspects Discourses Spatial developments Housing Flood risks Land use control (elevation, ditches, ponds) WRB ICT industry Landscape ponds Restricted development CEPD NSC UDB Cambridge project WRAs WRB UDB Solar city the end 1990s the end 2000s Private enterprises Zengwen River levee New town development Flood-resistant buffer Plans and policies E: water resistance and new town development Planning dimensions Discourses Water scarcity Collaborative frameworks Spatial developments Flood risks WRASB Sand mining WRASB Reservoir Dike plan Local NGOs Retention plan Levees WRA07 Master Plan of the Culture Town Meinong ! Villas & housing Water approach Economic approach Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Integrated approach Private enterprise Local NGOs Local NGOs Tourism Artificial lakes WRA07 Urban expansion Tai-Sugar cop. Private developers Local NGOs Groundwater reservoir Plans and policies the end 1990s E1: water scarcity E3: collaborative planning E2: flood risk management the end 2000s WRAP PWB &HEB E1: urban regeneration Planning aspects Collaborative frameworks Discourses Spatial developments Housing Flood risks Kao. Multifunctional Commerce and Trade Park UDB & EDB Kao. Port Authority Retention plan Retention ponds Gov. projects PWB Water quality & pollution Water approach Economic approach Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Integrated approach Private enterprise Trade & logistic Waterfront landscape HEB the end 1990s the end 2000s Waterfront wetlands Urban expansion E2: climate adaptation landmarks Plans and policies TBROC UDB UDB UDB E: urban regeneration Collaborative frameworks Water approach Economic approach Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Integrated approach Private enterprise Planning aspects Discourses Spatial developments Old district regeneration TB Waterfront regeneration Waterfront landscape CEPD Sparkling Tainan Canal China Town Haian Rd. the end 1990s the end 2000s China Town Haian Rd. Tourism development Anping Port National Scenic Area Landscape white paper Bridges Innovative shops Plans and policies E: new urban fringe Planning dimensions Collaborative frameworks Discourses Spatial developments Private developers Quality of living VROM VINEX Housing National authorities NGOs Water approach Economic approach Local authorities Integrated approach Private enterprise Enlarged lake Metro line the end 1990s the end 2000s City of RTM Recreational hotspots Plans and policies Case study Kaohsiung CS Tainan CS Rotterdam CS
  10. 10. Meinong STSP Nesselande Polder landscape Metro line Case study Economic downturn due to the decline of the harbour Monitoring for Economic development of the city Support and promote urban wetlands the end 1990s E1: urban regeneration emergency actions Typhoon Morakot & Typhoon Fanapi Economic growth Climate adaptation Retention ponds Rescue plans International collaboration the end 2000s Waterfront landscape projects Coastal area regeneration projects Local authorities E2: climate adaptation NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public the end 1990s E1: water scarcity E3: collaborative planning E2: flood risk management the end 2000s Water scarcity River dike is not robust for water safety Tourism and sand mining To ensure water supply Meinong reservoir (abandoned) and artificial lakes Flood risk management Construction of a new river levee Typhoon Morakot Typhoon Morakot Minimise flood risks Minimise flood risks Implement integrated strategies Support Integrated strategies Local participation Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS The STSP is located in areas where are vulnerable in flooding Science park development cannot be damaged by flooding Flooding experiences in this low-land area Typhoon Morakot New town development To restore river dikes To promote housing development projects Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise the end 1990s E: water resistance and new town development the end 2000s Water proof for spatial development The water safety of the ICT industry development need to be ensured The development of the ICT industry To build water retention ponds To implement land use control (zoning, elevation management) Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS Mistakable implementation of the inner city Challenge 2008: National development plan 2002-2007 and the Double Tourists Plan Redevelopment projects of the inner city Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise E: urban regeneration the end 1990s the end 2000s Historical resources (buildings) Historical resources and cultural atmosphere Economic/ tourism industry development Waterfront regeneration projects Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise Double the size of the Zevenhuizerplas E: new urban fringe the end 1990s the end 2000s Housing development To compete other VINEX projects Landscape and recreational activies Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS Reviewing river dike situation Scientific scenarios Flooding may occur more frequent and more severe Near-flooding experiences in the 1990s Knowledge for climate Be waterproof /climateproof Urban growth Marketing the expertise of the city Scientific studies International network Experimental practices Business communities Scientific research institutes Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise Social segregation Economic downturn of the harbour Economic crisis To promote housing development The extension of the city centre the end 1990s the end 2000s Urban regeneration The Erasmus Bridge Metro system E2 : E1 : urban regeneration climate adaptation Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public Planning episodes Kaohsiung CS Tainan CS Rotterdam CS
  11. 11. KAOHSI UNG TAI NAN Meinong Kaohsiung city centre the STSP Tainan city Local authorities centre NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS E1 E2 E3 E1 E2 E1 E1 Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involvi ng the public Different patterns of local planning governance Policy-making in Kaohsiung is more open to public participation, while is also more sensitive to external factors, such as the extreme events or political influences. In Tainan, policy-making is more restricted to sectors in the national and local government Different role of planning in coping with flood risks depending on the institutional capacity and the tradition of planning collaboration. Flooding issues are not always on the table. Similar in relation to a lack of scientific considerations in local planning policy-making to cope with flood risks and climate change National com. Findings
  12. 12. the current pattern the transitional pattern KAOHSIUNG TAINAN ROTTERDAM Meinong Kaohsiung city centre the STSP Tainan city centre Nesselande RTM city centre RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public International com. Findings KAOHSIUNG TAINAN ROTTERDAM Meinong Kaohsiung city centre the STSP Tainan city centre Nesselande RTM city centre RESILIENCE CHARACTERISTICS Local authorities NGOs & academics National authorities Private enterprise Considering the current situation Examining trends and future threats Learning from previous experience Setting goals Initiating actions Involving the public
  13. 13. In the Netherlands, the intention of economic development is often integrated with other environmental issues, such as the issues of water management. Another lesson gained from the international comparison is about the way to support policy-making in coping with flood risks. In Taiwan, strategies of flood risk management are mainly initiated according to the previous experiences of disasters. In the Netherlands, strategies are initiated by considering both the previous flooding experiences as well as the possible floods in the future. Two important lessons related to planning and flood risk management are gained according to the international comparison between Taiwan and the Netherlands. First, the traditional role of planning is critical in framing collaboration to cope with flood risks and climate change. !I n Taiwan, planning has an underlying principle of economic development. Collaboration is mainly formed with a specific intention to promote urban development. Other issues, such as flood risks, are seldom addressed in planning decision-making unless they may damage the interests of economic development. International com. Findings
  14. 14. 14 Preparation actions are more addressed in the Dutch context that focuses on assessment, such as monitoring current conditions, producing future simulations and investigating possible solutions for future risks. Actions for performance are the primarily focus of policy-making in Taiwan for flood risk management.These actions are more related to develop the capacities of response and recovery, so a city may react and retain basic functions, rearrange key resources, and propose redevelopment strategies for recovery. International com. Findings
  15. 15. Conclusion Collaboration is critical to form a framework in local policy-making that the notion of resilience is considered. The leading actors, are important for framing local collaboration to tackle potential disturbances of flooding. This reflects a part of planning tradition, which is relatively stable and not easy to change.
  16. 16. Conclusion Taiwan and the Netherlands are also different in terms of the role of the state in managing flooding issues. Both Taiwan and the Netherlands are experiencing a transition in planning governance. The reform in Taiwan is mainly addressed in the institutions. The institutional reform has a clear intention of land use redistribution, which is more focus on physical development. The reform in the Netherlands is more about the scope of planning. The reform leads to a more open framework of cross-actor collaboration and is not necessarily linked to physical development.
  17. 17. 17 Conclusion Urban resilience is often addressed in combination with other concepts, such as adaptation and mitigation. The word resilience has not always appeared in policy-making. In fact, it appears only rarely. Spatial planning is as important in the Netherlands as it is in Taiwan. In this context, it is important for policy-makers in Taiwan to have a broadened understanding of planning considering both the process of decision-making and the implementation in local practices in facing the complex issues like climate-related flood risks.
  18. 18. Thank you Pei-Wen Lu b88208035@gmail.com

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