Pworden Cleanwater Act[1]


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An overview of the Clean Water Act. Overview statutes and regulations as well as history.

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Pworden Cleanwater Act[1]

  1. 1. The Clean Water Act by Paula K. Worden for Education 6305 Summer 2010
  2. 2. What is the Clean Water Act (CWA)?
  3. 3. The CWA is the primary federal law governing water quality in the US
  4. 4. Goal of the CWA is to eliminate the release of highly toxic substances into America's waterways
  5. 5. = Eliminating Water Pollution
  6. 6. So What Does the CWA Cover?
  7. 7. All waters with a "significant nexus" to "navigable waters"
  8. 8. What does that mean?
  9. 9. Case Law Says waters of the United States, including the territorial seas
  10. 10. What does that mean?
  11. 11. Intermittent Streams a stream that only flows for part of the year
  12. 12. Playa a desert basin with no outlet which periodically fills with water to form a temporary lake
  13. 13. Lakes
  14. 14. Prairie Potholes a small wetland that can be found in the grasslands of central North America
  15. 15. Sloughs A slough is a low-lying area of land that channels water through the Everglades
  16. 16. Wetlands A wetland is an area of land in which soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally
  17. 17. Streams & Rivers
  18. 18. Oceans
  19. 19. So the CWA covers just about anything with water. What kind of pollution does it regulate?
  20. 20. Point Sources Pollution that can be traced to a definitive source
  21. 21. Like What? Industries & Manufacturing
  22. 22. Mining Acid Mine Drainage
  23. 23. Oil & Gas Extraction
  24. 24. Agricultural Runoff
  25. 25. The CWA Also Covers Nonpoint Sources Nonpoint sources of pollution are toxic substances and the origin is almost impossible to trace
  26. 26. Like What? Stormwater Runoff
  27. 27. Municipal Wastewater
  28. 28. How does the CWA protect against pollution?
  29. 29. Through permits & water quality standards
  30. 30. What are Water Quality Standards? Rules set by states (approved by EPA) that determine the levels of pollution that go into bodies of water (sewage, stormwater, etc.)
  31. 31. How do states determine how much pollution a body of water can take?
  32. 32. Each stream has a designated usage Like Recreation
  33. 33. Water Supply
  34. 34. Aquatic Life
  35. 35. Agriculture
  36. 36. What happens if a body of water does not meet Water Quality Standards?
  37. 37. What happens if a body of water does not meet Water Quality Standards? Placed on the 303(d) list
  38. 38. What happens if a body of water does not meet Water Quality Standards? Placed on the 303(d) list TMD L
  39. 39. 303(d) List the section of law covering bodies of water that do not meet Water Quality Standards
  40. 40. What is a TMDL? = Total Maximum Daily Load The equation that says how much pollution can go into a stream everyday
  41. 41. So Why does the US have a Clean Water Act?
  42. 42. =A series of environmental disasters in the late 60’s and early 70’s
  43. 43. In 1969, bacteria levels in the Hudson River were at 170 times the safe limit
  44. 44. The FDA reported in February 1971 that 87 percent of swordfish samples had mercury at levels that were unfit for human consumption.
  45. 45. Cuyahoga River Catches Fire Near Cleveland, OH, a floating oil slick burst into flames
  46. 46. 1969 Lake Thonotosassa Fish Kill 26 million killed in Lake Thonotosassa, FL, due to discharges from four food processing plants
  47. 47. By 1972 two-thirds of the country's lakes, rivers and coastal waters had become unsafe for fishing or swimming. Untreated sewage was being dumped into open water.
  48. 48. Does the Clean Water Act Work? Even after 30 years of regulation, water pollution is still a big problem in the U.S. Today, 39% of the rivers, 45% of the lakes, and 51% of the estuaries monitored are contaminated
  49. 49. Clean Water Successes? In 1997, (The 25th Anniversary of the CWA) more than 60 percent of the nation's waters now support fishing and other uses, and while the U.S. population grew considerably since 1972, modern wastewater treatment facilities helped pollutant levels in the nation's waters fall 36 percent.
  50. 50. But we still have a long way to go!
  51. 51. References: 1. How Did the Clean Water Act Get Started us/stuwork/rockwater/The%20Clean%20Water%20Act/History%20and%20stories.html 2. Wikipedia. The Clean Water Act. 3. NOW with Bill Moyers. A Brief History of the Clean Water Act. 4. Wikipedia. Mountain Top Removal. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Mountaintop_removal_mining 5. Wikipedia. Intermittent Stream. 6. Wikipedia. Playa. 7. US Forest Service. Wetlands Non-Tidal Marshes: Prairie Pothole 8. Wikiapedia. Wetlands.