Bio 1100 chapter 4 sp11


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  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Cell Structure and Function Slide # Chapter 04
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Cell Structure and Function Slide # Chapter 04
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Cell Structure and Function Slide # Chapter 04
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Cell Structure and Function Slide # Chapter 04
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Cell Structure and Function Slide # Chapter 04
  • Bio 1100 chapter 4 sp11

    1. 1. Chapter 4 Life’s Home: The Cell
    2. 2. Discovery of Cells <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the term “cell” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>microscope </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Cells are the Fundamental Units of Life <ul><li>The cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms are composed of one or more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell is the basic living unit of life (organization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells arise from preexisting cells </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Anatomy of the Generalized Cell </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is the smallest unit that shows the properties of life </li></ul><ul><li>ALL cells share 3 general structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm (pg. 68) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The Two Major Categories of Cells <ul><ul><li>Two major kinds of cells (pg. 65): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROKARYOTIC cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ before nucleus” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EUKARYOTIC cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eu = “true” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>karyon = “nucleus” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Prokaryotic Cells <ul><li>Lack a membrane-bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA in nucleoid region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structurally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells (most are unicellular) </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells are placed in two taxonomic domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live in extreme habitats </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Prokaryotic Cells - Bacteria
    8. 8. Eukaryotic Cells ( eu = “true”) <ul><li>Eukaryotic cells are members of the domain Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Much larger than prokaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells contain a membrane bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA (genetic material) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They contain membrane bound structures called organelles </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Figure 4.2 Comparison of prokaryotes and eukaryotes pg. 64
    10. 10. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells <ul><li>Animal cells and Plant cells </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Nucleus <ul><ul><li>The NUCLEUS is the control center of the cell (pg. 69). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains DNA (genetic information) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromatin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus (pg. 72) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rRNA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. nucleus nuclear pores (b) Yeast cell nuclear envelope nuclear pores nucleolus chromatin (a) Structure of the nucleus The nucleus contains chromatin which condenses and coils into chromosomes just before the cell divides
    13. 13. The Endomembrane System <ul><ul><li>An extensive system of interior membranes that divides the cell into compartments – pg. 73 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus (complex) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Ribosomes & The Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><ul><li>Two forms of ER: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rough endoplasmic reticulum (pg. 72) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis – pg. 71 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids & detoxification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pg. 74 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – pg. 70 & 71 nuclear envelope ribosomes 0.08 m rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    16. 16. The Golgi Apparatus (Complex) <ul><ul><ul><li>A specialized set of membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modifies, sorts, and packages important molecules into vesicles . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receives vesicles from ER (acts as a transfer station) – pg. 73 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Fig 4.8 pg. 73
    18. 18. Lysosomes & Cellular Recycling <ul><ul><li>Contain digestive enzymes that digest warn-out organelles and foreign materials that enter the cell – pg. 74 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by the Golgi apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste disposal and recycling </li></ul></ul></ul>
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    20. 20. Endomembrane System Summary
    21. 21. Energy-Related Organelles <ul><li>Chloroplasts (pg. 84) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis in plants (leaves) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture energy from sunlight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria (pg. 76) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extract energy (ATP) from food molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Mitochondria – pg. 76
    23. 23. The Cytoskeleton – pg. 76 <ul><li>Maintains cell shape and assists in movement of the cell and organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of macromolecular fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate Filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Cilia and Flagella – pg. 79 <ul><ul><li>Slender, movable extensions of the plasma membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for movement </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Compare and Contrast plant and animal cells. Animal Cells Plant Cells <ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Central vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul>
    26. 26. The Eukaryotic Cell Figure 4.4 nuclear envelope nuclear pores DNA nucleolus nucleus smooth endoplasmic reticulum free ribosomes cytosol mitochondria lysosomes Golgi complex plasma membrane transport vesicle rough endoplasmic reticulum cytoskeleton
    27. 27. The Plant Cell Figure 4.16 nuclear envelope nuclear pores nucleolus nucleus plasma membrane cytoskeleton smooth endoplasmic reticulum rough endoplasmic reticulum free ribosomes cytosol chloroplast mitochondrion cell wall central vacuole DNA Golgi complex Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a central vacuole, while animal cells do not.
    28. 28. Structures in Plant and Animal Cells Table 4.1
    29. 29. Chapter 4 Review <ul><li>Review the 3 parts of the cell theory (pg. 63-64) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare & contrast a prokaryotic versus a eukaryotic cell (pg. 64-65, Fig 4.2) </li></ul><ul><li>List the 3 components found in ALL cells </li></ul><ul><li>List the principle components of the eukaryotic cell – what is the function of each component? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pg. 65-80 Table 4.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast a plant versus an animal cell (pg. 80-84) </li></ul>