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Open Science in Europe - policies and infrastructures: a user journey in OpenAIRE services and EOSC


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Presentation by Pedro Principe at the 1st OpenAIRE Workshop Israel - Bar Ilan University, November 19, 2019.

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Open Science in Europe - policies and infrastructures: a user journey in OpenAIRE services and EOSC

  1. 1. OpenScienceinEurope– policies&infrastructures a user journey in OpenAIRE services and EOSC PedroPríncipe UniversityofMinho.OpenAIRESupportOfficer. OpenAIRE Workshop Israel, Bar-Ilan University, November 19, 2019
  2. 2. TOPICS FromOpenAccessto OpenScience: policies inEurope OpenAIRE infrastructure: auserjourneyin OpenAIRE services EuropeanOpenScience Could(EOSC): a “Research Commons” Q & A Nationaldevelopments 1 2 3 4
  3. 3. TOPICS FromOpenAccessto OpenScience: policies inEurope OpenAIRE infrastructure: auserjourneyin OpenAIRE services European Open Science Could (EOSC): a “Research Commons” Q&A 1 2 3 4 1
  4. 4. Open Science
  5. 5. FOSTER defines Open Science (OS) as the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods. What is Open Science 5
  6. 6. Open Science is here to stay: the sooner we embrace its principles, the better. “Thequestion isnolonger „if‟we should haveopen access.The question isabout „how‟weshould develop itfurther andpromote it.” NeelieKroes(2011) LennartMartens,PaolaMasuzzo(2017) Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World Carlos Moedas (2015)
  7. 7. Publications Research data Software … Results Methods Processes Tools Infrastructures … Open Science
  8. 8.  Promote the progress of research and science.  To make science more efficient, transparent, trustable and reproducible Open Science – Why?
  9. 9. Open Science: Scientific progress - Emergency science 13alzheimer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
  10. 10. Open Science: Validate, Correct Results, Combat fraud
  11. 11. Open Science: improve and promote reproducibility Begley, C. G. & Ellis, L. M. Nature 483, 531-533 (2012).
  12. 12. Two main routes toward Open Access to publications The article is immediately in open access mode, through the publisher. Self-archiving (‚green‘ open access) The published article or the final peer reviewed manuscript is uploaded in an online repository. Open access publishing (‚gold‘ open access) "By 'open access’ to [research] literature we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.” [Budapest Open Access Initiative]
  13. 13. Open Access to publications How to choose an suitable Open Access journal How to find a suitable repository for your publications Not sure if your publisher allows self-archiving?
  14. 14. Open Access helps to reach…
  15. 15. Open Access in the world: where are we?  More repositories (from <200 to> 3500)  More OA journals (from <500 to> 9300)  More OA policies (from research institutions and science funding agencies) The progress of Open Access in the last decade was remarkable!  Growth of the number of repositories, and the number of documents in the repositories  Growth of the number of open access journals  Open Access policies and mandates of universities and funding bodies Recent Evolution of Open Access to publications
  16. 16. Institutional and Funders policies Open Access Policies
  17. 17. Open Access in H2020
  18. 18. Open Science policies: the evolution of the EU funding programmes for R&I FP7 Open Access Pilot Deposit and open access H2020 OA Mandatory Deposit and open access & Open Research Data / DMP Pilot H2020 OA Mandatory Deposit and open access & ORD/DMP by default (opt-out) Horizon Europe • OA Mandatory • Deposit and open access • DMP + FAIR data Mandatory • OD by default (opt- out) • & Open Science embedded
  19. 19. OpenAccessisthedefault for research results in H2020
  20. 20. Multi-beneficiaryGeneral ModelGrantAgreement 29.2Openaccess toscientific publications 29.3Openaccess toresearch data 22 _manual/amga/h2020-amga_en.pdf
  21. 21. “Ensure open access… as soon as possible and at the latest on publication, deposit a machine-readable electronic copy of the published version or final peer-reviewed manuscript accepted for publication in a repository for scientific publications together with bibliographic metadata providing the name of the action, acronym & grant number”
  22. 22. Authors are free to choose between the two main and non-exclusive routes toward Open Access The article is immediately in open access mode, through the publisher. The associated costs are covered by the author/institution/funder. Self-archiving (‚green‘ open access) The published article or the final peer reviewed manuscript is uploaded in an online repository – access is often delayed (‚embargo period‘) Open access publishing (‚gold‘ open access) The article must always be deposited in a repository, even if the gold route has been choosen.
  23. 23. • Institutional repository • Disciplinary (arXiv, Europe PubMed Central…) • Or use EC-cofounded, multidisciplinary, free repository Wheretodeposit? • The Directories of Open Access Repositories: • • • where what when
  24. 24. • Finalpeer-reviewedmanuscript OR • Publishedversion +metadata:funder,grantIDnumber,acronym,publicationdate…. What to deposit? where what when
  25. 25. • SHERPA/ROMEO: • Overview of copyright policies and self-archiving permissions Checkpublisherspolicies What can I deposit? where what when
  26. 26. WhatcanIdeposit? Pre-print Before peer review Publisher’s version With lay-out Embargo Period during which access to the article is limited Post- Print After peer review
  27. 27. When should I deposit?  As soon as possible, and at the latest on publication When should open access be provided? • Immediately or • After embargo period: • at most 6 months (12 months for publications in the social sciences and humanities)* *EC’s model amendment to publishing agreements: guide-model-for-publishing-a_en.pdf where what when
  28. 28. Researcher decides where to publish Check publishers policies on Open Access Journals: Self-archive in repository Check for Article Processing Charges Subscription-based journal Immediate OA Immediate or delayed OA
  29. 29. • Both for OA journals AND subscriptions-based journals that offer the possibility of making individual articles openly accessible (hybrid journals) Yes but… • Are eligible for reimbursement during the duration of the action. AreArticleProcessingCharges(APCs)supported?
  30. 30. Average APCs APCsvarywidely Average: • 1378 €1 - 1 978 €2 • 1186 / 1 754 € (OA journal) - 2 280 € (hybrid journal)3 • 1 479 € (OA journal) – 2 493 € (hybrid journal)4 1. Open access central funds in UK universities. Learned Publishing, [online] 25(2). Pinfield, S., and Middleton, C., 2012 2. Figure 1: APC pricing distribution. Article processing charges (APCs) and subscriptions. Shamash , K. , 2016 3. A study of open access journals using article processing charges. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(8), pp.1485–1495. Solomon, D.J., and Björk, B.-C., 2012 4. Information on APCs per publisher and journal  openAPC project Both types of OA publication cost can be reimbursed in H2020 projects. Currently, there is no price-cap for APCs.
  31. 31. 1. Publishing all articles in APC based gold OA is not probably the right solution, as this can lead to asubstantial amount of the overall project budget. Therefore, a mixed strategy of GREEN/GOLD open access is highly recommended. 2. The growing openaccess market comes with some challenges • Lots of new journals/publishers, some of questionable quality (‚predatory journals‘, Some caution is needed when publishing, this holds for all journals. Consult ‚white lists‘ such as DOAJ. Some issues to consider
  32. 32. •Ifabeneficiary breaches anyofitsobligations, the grantmaybereduced (Article 43)anditmayalsolead toanyoftheother measuresdescribed inChapter 6 oftheGeneral Model GrantAgreement. What are the consequences for non- compliance with OA requirements?
  33. 33. @openaire_eu Notjustaboutopenaccesstopublications… OPEN RESEARCH DATA
  34. 34. • Descriptionofdatatobecollected/created(i.e. content,type,format,volume...) • Standards/methodologiesfordatacollection& management • EthicsandIntellectualProperty(highlightrestrictionson datasharinge.g.embargoes,confidentiality) • Plansfordatasharingandaccess(,when,to whom) • Strategyforlong-termpreservation Data Management Plans Requirements 37
  35. 35. Image: Data management is a part of good research practice. RCUK Policy and Code of Conduct on the Governance of Good Research Conduct Responsible data management is part of good research. NWO – Introduction to the pilot Data Management
  36. 36. To make the research data generated by Horizon 2020 projects accessible with as few restrictions as possible, while at the same time protecting sensitive data from inappropriate access. Information already paid for by the public should not be paid for again. Open data is data that is free to access and reuse EC Open Research Data Pilot: aims
  37. 37. RequirementsoftheDataPilot 1. Data Management Plan (DMP) 2. Deposit data in data repository 4. Open up data3. Provide information to validate results
  38. 38. DATA, including metadata, needed to validate the results in scientific publications. Other data, including metadata, as specified in the Data Management Plan. Open Research Data policy requirements Horizon 2020 grantees are encouraged to also share datasets beyond publication
  39. 39. Write, and keep up-to-date, a Data Management Plan. Deposit the data in a research data repository. Open Research Data policy requirements Licensing research data - Horizon 2020 Open Access guidelines point to:
  40. 40. Moreinformation: Zenodo: Where to find a repository?
  41. 41. 44
  42. 42.  IncompatiblewiththeHorizon2020obligationtoprotectresultsiftheycan reasonablybeexpectedtobecommerciallyorindustriallyexploited;  Incompatiblewiththeneedforconfidentialityinconnectionwithsecurity issues;  Incompatiblewithexistingrulesconcerningtheprotectionofpersonaldata;  Iftheprojectwillnotgenerate/collectanyresearchdata;  IfthereareotherlegitimatereasonstonottakepartinthePilot Reasons for total or partial opting out 45
  43. 43. CreateaDMP Living document: update Reflects on curation, preservation, sustainability and security What parts will be open and how? Handling of data during and after project
  44. 44. basic idea ≠ DMP + plan budget Timeline 1st version DMP Changes in data, policy, consortium Update DMP Final version UPDATE PERIODIC EVALUATION 6 MONTHSPROPOSAL FINAL REVIEW
  45. 45. 1. Datasummary 2. FAIRdata 1. Makingdatafindable,includingprovisionsfor metadata 2. Makingdataopenlyaccessible 3. Makingdatainteroperable 4. Increasedatare-use(throughclarifying licences) 3. Allocationofresources 4. Datasecurity 5. Ethicalaspects 6. Otherissues H2020 template ExampleH2020DMPsinZenodo • HelixNebula–HighEnergyPhysicsexample • Tweether–engineering(micro-electronics)example • AutoPost–ICTexample OpenAIRE2020 Morelistedat: examples
  46. 46. FAIR Data Management guidelines  Notes the extension of the pilot  Clarifies concept of FAIR data  Explains what a DMP is and when they should be updated  Notes what happens at proposal, submission and evaluation stage  Explains costs are eligible  Provides a DMP template
  47. 47. I1.(meta)datauseaformal,accessible,shared,and broadlyapplicablelanguageforknowledge representation. I2.(meta)datausevocabulariesthatfollowFAIR principles; I3.(meta)dataincludequalifiedreferencestoother (meta)data; R1.meta(data)arerichlydescribedwithapluralityof accurateandrelevantattributes; R1.1.(meta)dataarereleasedwithaclearand accessibledatausagelicense; R1.2.(meta)dataareassociatedwithdetailed provenance; R1.3.(meta)datameetdomain-relevantcommunity standards; A1.(meta)dataareretrievablebytheiridentifier usingastandardizedcommunicationsprotocol; A1.1theprotocolisopen,free,anduniversally implementable; A1.2.theprotocolallowsforanauthenticationand authorizationprocedure,wherenecessary; A2.metadataareaccessible,evenwhenthedata arenolongeravailable; Findable: F1.(meta)dataareassignedagloballyuniqueand persistentidentifier; F2.dataaredescribedwithrichmetadata; F3.metadataclearlyandexplicitlyincludethe identifierofthedataitdescribes; F4.(meta)dataareregisteredorindexedina searchableresource; Interoperable: Accessible: Reusable: FAIR DATA PRINCIPLES 51
  48. 48. • How to discover your data? • How to understand your data? • Where to find your data? • Can people access your data? • Metadata • Persistent identifier • Naming convention • Keywords • Versioning • Software, documentation • Data repository • Standards • Vocabulary • Methodologies • Licensing Findable ReusableInteroperable Accessible
  49. 49. Open Access to Research Data
  50. 50. Publishers Data Availability Requirements 54
  51. 51. Data availability policy - publishers Scenarios: • sendthedatasettothepublisherand thepublisher publishesthedataset online. • thepublisher askstheauthortodeposit thedatasetinatrustedrepositoryand tonotifythepublisher. • thepublisher askstheauthortogive contactinformationforthosewhowish tohaveaccesstothedata. Therequirementsaregenerallyfoundonthe journal'swebsite. Anumberofjournalshaveaspecific DataAvailabilityor DataArchiving Policy 55
  52. 52. 56
  53. 53. TOPICS FromOpenAccessto OpenScience: policies inEurope OpenAIRE infrastructure: auserjourneyin OpenAIRE services European Open Science Could (EOSC): a “Research Commons” Q&A 1 2 3 4 2
  54. 54. Open Science in the EU and OpenAIRE Slide from Natalia Manola Open Science the modus operandi 2021 2017 OA data by default 2018 2013 OA to all publications OA data pilot 2007 OA pilot for publications Zooming on Open Science Started Legal Entity
  55. 55. OpenAIRE – who we are  In 24x7 operation since Dec 2010  EC funding (2009-2020)  OpenAIRE (2009-2012)  OpenAIREplus (2012-2014)  OpenAIRE2020 (2015-2018)  OpenAIRE Advance (2018-2020)  Consortium of 50+ partners  A legal entity in 2018 Open Access / Science experts Information & Computer Science experts Legal experts Data communities Open Innovation experts Citizen Science (schools)
  56. 56. Policies Training Services Connecting Empowering 3 pillars of action Aligning
  57. 57. National Global Thematic Social/People Technical/Services 3 levels of operation
  58. 58. Outreach Support Training Policy OpenAIRE – National Open Access Desks A pan-European network to address diversity in culture & maturity of national/local infras
  59. 59. OpenAIRE NOAD in Israel
  60. 60. Research communities Researchers (All) Content providers Innovators Research managers Funders Building the OpenAIRE research graph and the Dashboard services Infrastructure Validation Cleaning De-duplication Inference Project communiity FunderFunding Product Publicatio n Data Software Organizatio n TERMS OF USE Harvesting Uploading Brokering Source ORP Publications repositories Data repositories Hybrid repositories Registries OA Journals Software repositories Content Providers Research Infras GUIDE LINES
  61. 61. Funders, institutions, RIs, 3rd parties Content providers, Research Infras Researchers, scientists Support Accelerate Monitor OpenAIRE Services From basic infrastructure level to value added
  62. 62. OpenAIRE services and tools
  63. 63.
  64. 64. Complete aggregation coverage Academic Graph Project communit y FunderFunding Product Publication Research Data Software Organization Source Other res. products … and more … and more … and more … and more … and more … and more
  65. 65. Providing an open metadata research graph of interlinked scientific products, with access rights information, linked to funding information and research communities The OpenAIRE research graph Open Complete De-duplicated Transparent Participatory Decentralized Trusted
  66. 66. CAP supported by the set of Guidelines for Open Science Content Providers
  67. 67.
  68. 68. In production: Status Germany DFG Italy Miur (Italian Ministry of University and Research) Belgium INNOVIRIS Greece GSRT Cyprus RPF Canada CIHR, NSERC, SSHCR France French National Research Agency funder (ANR) Chile CONICYT Spain FECYT (Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness) In beta:
  69. 69. OpenAIRE Research Communities/Initiatives Dashboarb COMMUNITY RESEARCH INITIATIVE
  70. 70. OPEN SCIENCE HELPDESK Primers Getting started onOpen Science good practices Guides Howto’s on practicing Open Science and on using OpenAIRE services Factsheets Quick references on Open Science in H2020 topics FAQs Quick answers to Open Science practices and OpenAIRE services issues Use cases of OpenAIRE services for different stakeholders Webinars Training on Open Science topics
  71. 71. TOPICS FromOpenAccessto OpenScience: policies inEurope OpenAIRE infrastructure: auserjourneyin OpenAIRE services European Open Science Could (EOSC): a “Research Commons” Supporting OpenScience atnational level: Q&A 1 2 3 4 3
  72. 72. Towards implementation
  73. 73. IFLA WLIC| August 28, 2019 The role of the EOSC is to ensure that European scientists reap the full benefits of data-driven science, by offering: “1.7 million European researchers and 70 million professionals in science and technology a virtual environment with free at the point of use, open and seamless services for storage, management, analysis and re-use of research data, across borders and scientific disciplines”
  74. 74. IFLA WLIC| August 28, 2019 Why European Open Science Cloud • Now: A Fragmented e-Infrastructure landscape • End-users, such as researchers, innovators or industry actors, often are unaware of the available e-infrastructure services • Service providers and data producers often have difficulty reaching out to potential new users
  75. 75. • Trusted and open virtual environment with seamless access to services (with highest TRLs) addressing the whole research • Multi-layered federation which brings together supply and demand in a trusted environment • Open, transparent, rule of law based: no lock-in by individual service providers, data portability, IPR, cloud security… • Adaptively user-oriented and inclusive (across borders and disciplines) • Governed by a minimal set of Rules of Participation • Steered by an inclusive governance structure EOSC key characteristics
  76. 76. Involving all stakeholders Stakeholders Forum (wide stakeholders representation) Executive Board (representatives of stakeholders) Governance Board (MS/AC + EC) Oversight Think tank / Advice Implementation Three layer structure EOSC Board of member states to ensure effective supervision of EOSC implementation Executive Board of stakeholder representatives to help ensure proper EOSC implementation and accountability Stakeholder Forum to provide input from a wide range of actors Working Groups • Architecture • FAIR • RoP • Landscape • Sustainability • Training/skills Advice WG WG WGWG WGWG Advice Slide from Natalia Manola
  77. 77. Implementing Open Science in Europe and EOSC
  78. 78. TOPICS FromOpenAccessto OpenScience: policies inEurope OpenAIRE infrastructure: auserjourneyin OpenAIRE services European Open Science Could (EOSC): a “Research Commons” Q&A 1 2 3 4
  79. 79. @openaire_eu Thank you!