Impact of Ground-Level Ozoneon the Florida Everglades                             o                         o       oTeam ...
The Everglades
Introduction: The Everglades Originally, covered approximately  4000 mi2 In 1947, the area was drained with  1400 mi of ...
Comprehensive EvergladesRestoration Project Focus on aqueous phosphorous  removal and creating new wetlands Ground-level...
Ozone Formation Ozone not emitted, but formed Tropospheric ozone formation  occurs when precursors, like  nitrogen oxide...
Formation… Precursors often originate in urban areas, but winds can carry them  hundreds of kilometers, causing ozone for...
Importance Ozone is powerful oxidizer… It ATTACKS!!!              Ozone Damaging materials, human health and plants,   e...
Monitoring Objectives of NPS Provide data to help   scientists Collect air quality data Identify air quality trends As...
Monitoring Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (GPMP)  Jointly operated with the EPA through CASTNet  Ozone and sulfur...
How is Ozone Monitored? Within the National Parks System:  Air Atlas   GIS database of air quality estimates for 270 par...
Monitoring Procedure UV–absorption analyzer, a transfer standard, a weather station  including wind speed, wind direction...
Data Type                                                  Details                                      Access DataMetadat...
Environmental Effects: OzoneEffects on Plants Symptoms: tissue collapse, interveinal  necrosis, markings on the upper sur...
Environmental Effects: GrowthResponsesPlant growth is often stunted, flowering and bud formation is depressedOzone has b...
Environmental Effects:Everglades Example It has been observed that needles from native slash pine trees at  Everglade Nat...
New EPA Regulations In January, EPA proposed to reduce the primary standard to between  0.060 and 0.070 ppm Also, to est...
Florida State Implementation Plan Clean Air Act goes into effect prior to the  submission of the state plan in December 2...
Biogenic EmissionsDerived from natural sourcesMust be accounted for in photochemical grid models, as most are    widespr...
VOC Abatement ApproachSystem design and the choice of control technologies require  consideration of many factors:   Reg...
VOC Control DevicesAdsorption using carbon or other materialsBiofiltrationCondensationThermal oxidationUltraviolet li...
Summary The Everglades is a rich, biodiverse and historic ecosystem that is  unique to the world and is extremely importa...
Future WorkMost research has been conducted on plant and tree species of commercial valuesLittle is known about the impa...
ConclusionsThe Comprensive Everglades Restoration Plan, a nearly $10 billioncollection of projects, focuses exclusively o...
Practice Quiz Questions1)    List three VOC control devices.             Go Gators!!!    Biofiltration    Condensation ...
Impact of ground-level ozone on the Florida Everglades
Impact of ground-level ozone on the Florida Everglades
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Impact of ground-level ozone on the Florida Everglades

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Impact of ground-level ozone on the Florida Everglades

  1. 1. Impact of Ground-Level Ozoneon the Florida Everglades o o oTeam Lead: Allison Belle, Alexandra Bigger, Katherine Graf, Pedro Palomino Presented April 12th, 2010
  2. 2. The Everglades
  3. 3. Introduction: The Everglades Originally, covered approximately 4000 mi2 In 1947, the area was drained with 1400 mi of canals to make room for agricultural and urban developmentOnly 50% remains Decline in water quality due to loss of wetlands that act as filter for polluted waters Problems: decreased bird populations, hypersalinity and water level drops
  4. 4. Comprehensive EvergladesRestoration Project Focus on aqueous phosphorous removal and creating new wetlands Ground-level ozone is most important plant-toxic air pollutant Plants in wetland climate are at greater risk to adverse ozone concentrations Environmental degradation will lead to decreased tourism and fishing, causing an adverse impact on the local economy In the US, O3 is responsible for an estimated $500 million in reduced crop production each year
  5. 5. Ozone Formation Ozone not emitted, but formed Tropospheric ozone formation occurs when precursors, like nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere photochemically Where do the precursors come from? Motor vehicle and fossil fuel combustion Industrial emissions Chemical Solvents Biogenic VOCs
  6. 6. Formation… Precursors often originate in urban areas, but winds can carry them hundreds of kilometers, causing ozone formation to occur in less populated regions as well. OH + CO → H + CO2 H + O2 → HO2 HO2 + NO → OH + NO2 NO2 + hν → NO + O O + O2 → O3
  7. 7. Importance Ozone is powerful oxidizer… It ATTACKS!!! Ozone Damaging materials, human health and plants, especially the Everglades and its sensitive species
  8. 8. Monitoring Objectives of NPS Provide data to help scientists Collect air quality data Identify air quality trends Assist modeling efforts, regional pollution and transportation studies, State Implementation Plan development and national air quality control strategies NPS Monitoring Sites Provide timely NPS air quality information to the public and researchers.
  9. 9. Monitoring Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (GPMP) Jointly operated with the EPA through CASTNet Ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring studies in national parks have been ongoing since the early 1980s Most NPS ozone monitoring locations are operated by the NPS in parks identified as mandatory Class I areas. Related NPS ozone monitoring includes special studies programs using passive samplers, portable O3 monitors and enhances multi-pollutant analyzers
  10. 10. How is Ozone Monitored? Within the National Parks System: Air Atlas GIS database of air quality estimates for 270 parks that are part of the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program. These estimates can be used when on-site monitoring data is not available.  Ozone Monitoring Ozone has been continuously monitored at Everglades NP since 1986. Portable Ambient Ozone Monitor
  11. 11. Monitoring Procedure UV–absorption analyzer, a transfer standard, a weather station including wind speed, wind direction, temperature at two heights, solar radiation, relative humidity, and a wetness sensor. Additionally stacked filter-pack Park staff operate the stations Contractor maintains and calibrates the network equipment Data are transmitted nightly, validated, and archived. Hourly data files are transferred to the EPA Air Quality Systems database and are available on the web.
  12. 12. Data Type Details Access DataMetadata what, where, and when monitors have operated in national parks Monitoring History Database ozone and sulfur dioxide (for a limited number of parks) hourly Interactive Data QueryNPS Gaseous Pollutant & Meteorology concentrations; wind speed and direction, temperature, relative – includes summary tables and humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, and wetness at NPS sites plots ozone hourly concentrations, meteorology, and filter-pack data atCASTNET data CASTNet website all CASTNet sites current on-line scenic views, ozone, PM2.5, and/orReal-time Scenic and Air Quality Conditions Web Cameras meteorological data current 1-hour average ozone concentration, wind speed and Current Ozone & WeatherCurrent Ozone & Weather Data direction, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and Data rainfall for NPS sites (available May - September only) current health advisories, available May - September Health AdvisoriesHealth Advisories Ozone Health Advisory ozone health advisory summaries Summaries park list of ozone standard exceedances by month and yearOzone Standard Exceedances Ozone Standard Exceedances (2000 - present) map of current ozone data at NPS sites (available May - EPA AIRNow - Air QualityCurrent Map of Ozone Data September only) IndexCriteria Pollutants & Meteorology ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, EPA Annual Summary Tables PM10, PM2.5, and meteorology annual summaries
  13. 13. Environmental Effects: OzoneEffects on Plants Symptoms: tissue collapse, interveinal necrosis, markings on the upper surface of leaves Concentration of tropospheric ozone in rural areas is higher compared to urban areas, posing a phytotoxic risk to crop Healthy and natural vegetation Uptake of ozone is coupled with the gas exchange of a plant Readily transpiring plants grown under moist soil conditions are more susceptible to ozone than plants grown Chlorotic Mottling under a slight drought stress
  14. 14. Environmental Effects: GrowthResponsesPlant growth is often stunted, flowering and bud formation is depressedOzone has been shown to reduce growth and development of some coniferous tree species.Plants showed premature senescencePremature senescence causes shortening the vegetative phase and reducing the general vitality of the plantOzone usually attacks nearly mature leaves first; progressing to younger and older leavesThere is a diverse reaction pattern of wet grassland species to ozone
  15. 15. Environmental Effects:Everglades Example It has been observed that needles from native slash pine trees at Everglade National Park show chlorotic mottle, similar to that exhibited by many conifers, and that such injury was generally related to a higher percentage of cell necrosis compared with needles without symptoms Ozone experiments on slash pine seedlings concluded that exposure to chronic levels of ozone resulted in growth reductions (measured in such parameters as stem diameter, height, and biomass)
  16. 16. New EPA Regulations In January, EPA proposed to reduce the primary standard to between 0.060 and 0.070 ppm Also, to establish a seasonal “secondary” standard (7-15 ppm-hour) to protect sensitive vegetation and ecosystems Once non-attainment designations take effect, the state government has three years to develop implementation plans outlining how areas will attain and maintain the standards by reducing air pollutant emissions contributing to O3 concentrations. Primary Standards Level Averaging Times0.075 ppm (2008) 8-hour 0.08 ppm (1997) 8-hour 0.12 ppm 1-hour
  17. 17. Florida State Implementation Plan Clean Air Act goes into effect prior to the submission of the state plan in December 2013. Requires new source review and transportation conformity in non-attainment areas Current state regulations to reduce precursor pollutant emissions  Clean Air Interstate Rule will greatly reduce Non-attainment counties nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants.  EPA emission control rules for new automobiles will reduce Nox emissions over the next several years  Control of gasoline vapor emissions, like VOCs, from gas stations beginning in 2010.
  18. 18. Biogenic EmissionsDerived from natural sourcesMust be accounted for in photochemical grid models, as most are widespread and ubiquitous contributors to background air chemistryTypically computed using a model whichutilizes spatial information on vegetations,land use, environmental conditions,temperature and solar radiationNOx Control Currently, being installed at all major coal- fired power plants in the state and is will be operating in spring of 2010. NOx Control Device
  19. 19. VOC Abatement ApproachSystem design and the choice of control technologies require consideration of many factors: Regulatory agency preferences and biases Physical and operational constraints of the plant Comparative capital and operating costs of the abatement system  Generation of secondary pollutants during the process of controlling the VOCs Ease of operation and maintenance Capabilities and responsiveness of the vendor
  20. 20. VOC Control DevicesAdsorption using carbon or other materialsBiofiltrationCondensationThermal oxidationUltraviolet light oxidationWet scrubbing Example of VOC control devicesVarious combinations of the above, including concentrators
  21. 21. Summary The Everglades is a rich, biodiverse and historic ecosystem that is unique to the world and is extremely important to Florida Due to over development and pollution, the Everglades is in peril Recently, legislation has been pushed to restore the Everglades, but its focus is on water resources Tropospheric ozone is very harmful to natural and agricultural plants The extent of the damage is not well understood Monitoring and control techniques exist Current regulations are beginning to force the implementation O3 control
  22. 22. Future WorkMost research has been conducted on plant and tree species of commercial valuesLittle is known about the impacts of ozone on biodiversity and ecosystemsIn rapidly developing areas, O3 concentrations are expected to increase
  23. 23. ConclusionsThe Comprensive Everglades Restoration Plan, a nearly $10 billioncollection of projects, focuses exclusively on water resourcesNew research has shown that tropospheric ozone has very harmfuleffects on plantsThe rich biodiversity and location of the Everglades makes it verysusceptible air pollutionApart from the environmental effects, the damage will haveadverse effects on the local economy, due to decreased commercialfishing, agricultural production and tourism
  24. 24. Practice Quiz Questions1) List three VOC control devices. Go Gators!!! Biofiltration Condensation Thermal oxidation Ultraviolet light oxidation Wet scrubbing2) List three effects of tropospheric ozone on plants. Tissue collapse, Interveinal necrosis, Markings on upper surface of leaves Reduced growth and development Depressed flowering and bud formation Premature senescence

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