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Geothermal Energy 
Indirect Uses
Uses of Geothermal Energy 
 Direct Use: Geothermal Heating and Heat Pump. 
 Indirect Use: Electricity Production.
Direct Use 
 Heat is directly used. 
 Heat is extracted from low temperature 
source(< 150ºC). 
 It can be used for space heating, industrial 
processes, drying crops, hot water supply, 
melting snow. 
 For space heating, Heat Pump is used. 
 It uses little energy for heating thus saves money 
and reduce pollution.
Indirect Use: Electricity Production 
 Source temperature is higer than 150ºC 
 Deep wells are drilled and steam from reservoirs is used to drive 
turbines and produce electricity 
 Normally takes place by using heat present in the deeper subsurface at 
depths of 3 to 5 km. However, in 
specific areas, one does not need 
to drill that deep (e.g. Island).
What can geothermal energy be 
used for?
How a Geothermal Power Plant 
Generates Electricity? 
Geothermal power comes from the slow decay of radioactive 
minerals such as uranium, which causes the rocks to become 
magma. Tectonic plate movement causes the movement of 
magma up from the edges, forming a reservoir in which 
geothermal steam and hot water can be recovered through wells. 
These forms of heat(hot water or steam) are pressured through a 
turbine, that is connected to a generator that produces electricity
Types of Geothermal Power Plants 
• Dry Steam 
• Flash Steam 
• Binary Cycle
Components of a Geothermal Power 
Plant 
• Production wells: used to lead hot water/steam from 
the reservoirs and into the power plant. 
• Rock catchers: are in place to make sure that only hot 
fluids are sent to the turbine. Rocks can cause great 
damage to steam turbines. 
• Injection wells: ensure that the water that is drawn up 
from the production wells returns to the geothermal 
reservoir where it regains the thermal energy (heat) that 
we have used to generate electricity.
Components of a Geothermal Power 
Plant 
• Pump: pulls the steam or hot water (in the pipe), to 
the surface for then to go to the turbine 
• Turbine: Steam moves the turbine blades, thus 
creating mechanical(torsion) power in a shaft, that is 
connected with the generator 
• Generator: through inner rotating magnets, the 
mechanical power is converted in electrical energy, 
and then taken to the transformer, outside the plant 
• Condenser: Part of the steam and hot water goes 
through the condenser and it is turned into cooled 
water and placed again into the system through the 
injection well
Dry Steam Power Plant 
• Dry steam power plants work by pumping cooled water into the earth via one 
pipeline, the injection well. 
• Due to the high underground temperature, water is boiled into steam in the 
geothermal reservoir. 
• Then, the steam is brought to the surface by a pump(production well) and it is 
passed through a rock catcher and then directly into the turbine. 
• The turbine is directly connected with a electric generator, and this one is 
connected with a transformer, thus creating electricity. 
• Part of the steam(or hot water) goes through a condenser, turned in cooled water 
and then enters the system again, through the injection well. 
• The work temperature in this type of plant varies from 100ºC to 320ºC 
• The first geothermal power generation plant from dry steam was constructed in 
1904 in Larderello, Italy. This had a capacity of 250kW.
Dry Steam Power Plant
Flash Steam Power Plant 
This is the most common type of plant in operation 
today. 
It require fluid temperatures of at least 180°c, usually 
more.
Flash Steam Power Plant 
• The hot water is pumped under great 
pressure to the surface. 
• When it reaches the surface the pressure 
is reduced causing some of the fluid to 
rapidly vaporize, or "flash." 
• The vapor then drives a turbine, which 
drives a generator. 
• The cooled water is returned to the 
reservoir to be heated by geothermal 
rocks again. 
• Video which describes the process: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kjpp2MQ 
ffnw&feature=youtu.be&t=1m4s
Power Plants 
East Mesa, California 
 Imperial Valley, California 
 Dixie Valley, Nevada 
 Japan
Binary Cycle Power Plant 
• A binary cycle power plant is a type of geothermal 
power plant that allows cooler geothermal reservoirs to be 
used. 
• Pumps are used to pump hot water from a geothermal well, 
through a heat exchanger, and the cooled water is returned to 
the underground reservoir. 
• A second "working" or "binary" fluid with a low boiling 
point is pumped at high pressure through the heat exchanger, 
where it is vaporized and then directed through a turbine. 
• The vapor exiting the turbine is then condensed by cold air 
radiators or cold water and cycled back through the heat 
exchanger.
Binary Cycle Power Plant 
• A binary vapor cycle is defined in 
thermodynamics as a power cycle 
that is a combination of two cycles. 
• The binary cycle can operate with 
geothermal fluid temperatures 
ranging from 85°C to 170°C. 
• Environmentally, binary plants 
possess key advantages in that they 
do not release geothermal fluids into 
the environment. 
• Binary cycle power plants have a 
thermal efficiency of 10-13%
Binary Cycle Power Plant
Characteristics of Optimal Working 
Fluids 
• A high critical temperature and maximum pressure 
• Low triple point temperature 
• A condenser pressure that is not too low 
• A high enthalpy of vaporization (hfg) 
• A saturation dome that resembles an inverted U 
• High thermal conductivity 
• Other properties: nontoxic, inert, inexpensive, and 
readily available
Power Plants 
• Steamboat Springs, Nevada 
• Mammoth Lakes, California 
• Te Huka Geothermal Power Plant, New 
Zealand
5 largest power stations 
•1. „The Geysers“, California 
•2. Hellisheiði power plant, Iceland 
•3. Cerro Prieto power station, Mexico 
•4. Tongonan, Philippines 
•5. Lardello, Italy
The „Geysers“ 
• 15 power plants 
• 335 wells 
• Capacity: up to 1 GW 
• Average well deepth: 2600m 
• Type: Dry steam
Hellisheiði 
• Type: Flash steam 
• 30 wells 
• Well depth: 2200m 
• 303 MW of electricity and 133 MW of district 
heat
• Cerro Prieto: 
→ all 5 units together ~ 720 MW 
• Tongonan: 
→ 305 MW 
• Lardello: 
→ 2013 will celebrate 100th. 
Anniversary 
→ 34 units ~ 770 MW
Sources 
• Wikipedia 
• “Geothermal Energy-Clean Power from the Earth's Heat“ 
• http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Power_Generation- 
Steam_Power 
• http://www.conserve-energy-future. 
com/GeothermalPowerPlantTypes.php 
• http://www.geysers.com/ 
• http://www.extremeiceland.is/en/information/about-iceland/ 
hellisheidi-geothermal-power-station
The End 
Thank you!

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Geothermal Energy-Indirect Uses

  • 2. Uses of Geothermal Energy  Direct Use: Geothermal Heating and Heat Pump.  Indirect Use: Electricity Production.
  • 3. Direct Use  Heat is directly used.  Heat is extracted from low temperature source(< 150ºC).  It can be used for space heating, industrial processes, drying crops, hot water supply, melting snow.  For space heating, Heat Pump is used.  It uses little energy for heating thus saves money and reduce pollution.
  • 4. Indirect Use: Electricity Production  Source temperature is higer than 150ºC  Deep wells are drilled and steam from reservoirs is used to drive turbines and produce electricity  Normally takes place by using heat present in the deeper subsurface at depths of 3 to 5 km. However, in specific areas, one does not need to drill that deep (e.g. Island).
  • 5. What can geothermal energy be used for?
  • 6. How a Geothermal Power Plant Generates Electricity? Geothermal power comes from the slow decay of radioactive minerals such as uranium, which causes the rocks to become magma. Tectonic plate movement causes the movement of magma up from the edges, forming a reservoir in which geothermal steam and hot water can be recovered through wells. These forms of heat(hot water or steam) are pressured through a turbine, that is connected to a generator that produces electricity
  • 7. Types of Geothermal Power Plants • Dry Steam • Flash Steam • Binary Cycle
  • 8. Components of a Geothermal Power Plant • Production wells: used to lead hot water/steam from the reservoirs and into the power plant. • Rock catchers: are in place to make sure that only hot fluids are sent to the turbine. Rocks can cause great damage to steam turbines. • Injection wells: ensure that the water that is drawn up from the production wells returns to the geothermal reservoir where it regains the thermal energy (heat) that we have used to generate electricity.
  • 9. Components of a Geothermal Power Plant • Pump: pulls the steam or hot water (in the pipe), to the surface for then to go to the turbine • Turbine: Steam moves the turbine blades, thus creating mechanical(torsion) power in a shaft, that is connected with the generator • Generator: through inner rotating magnets, the mechanical power is converted in electrical energy, and then taken to the transformer, outside the plant • Condenser: Part of the steam and hot water goes through the condenser and it is turned into cooled water and placed again into the system through the injection well
  • 10. Dry Steam Power Plant • Dry steam power plants work by pumping cooled water into the earth via one pipeline, the injection well. • Due to the high underground temperature, water is boiled into steam in the geothermal reservoir. • Then, the steam is brought to the surface by a pump(production well) and it is passed through a rock catcher and then directly into the turbine. • The turbine is directly connected with a electric generator, and this one is connected with a transformer, thus creating electricity. • Part of the steam(or hot water) goes through a condenser, turned in cooled water and then enters the system again, through the injection well. • The work temperature in this type of plant varies from 100ºC to 320ºC • The first geothermal power generation plant from dry steam was constructed in 1904 in Larderello, Italy. This had a capacity of 250kW.
  • 12. Flash Steam Power Plant This is the most common type of plant in operation today. It require fluid temperatures of at least 180°c, usually more.
  • 13. Flash Steam Power Plant • The hot water is pumped under great pressure to the surface. • When it reaches the surface the pressure is reduced causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." • The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. • The cooled water is returned to the reservoir to be heated by geothermal rocks again. • Video which describes the process: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kjpp2MQ ffnw&feature=youtu.be&t=1m4s
  • 14. Power Plants East Mesa, California  Imperial Valley, California  Dixie Valley, Nevada  Japan
  • 15. Binary Cycle Power Plant • A binary cycle power plant is a type of geothermal power plant that allows cooler geothermal reservoirs to be used. • Pumps are used to pump hot water from a geothermal well, through a heat exchanger, and the cooled water is returned to the underground reservoir. • A second "working" or "binary" fluid with a low boiling point is pumped at high pressure through the heat exchanger, where it is vaporized and then directed through a turbine. • The vapor exiting the turbine is then condensed by cold air radiators or cold water and cycled back through the heat exchanger.
  • 16. Binary Cycle Power Plant • A binary vapor cycle is defined in thermodynamics as a power cycle that is a combination of two cycles. • The binary cycle can operate with geothermal fluid temperatures ranging from 85°C to 170°C. • Environmentally, binary plants possess key advantages in that they do not release geothermal fluids into the environment. • Binary cycle power plants have a thermal efficiency of 10-13%
  • 18. Characteristics of Optimal Working Fluids • A high critical temperature and maximum pressure • Low triple point temperature • A condenser pressure that is not too low • A high enthalpy of vaporization (hfg) • A saturation dome that resembles an inverted U • High thermal conductivity • Other properties: nontoxic, inert, inexpensive, and readily available
  • 19. Power Plants • Steamboat Springs, Nevada • Mammoth Lakes, California • Te Huka Geothermal Power Plant, New Zealand
  • 20. 5 largest power stations •1. „The Geysers“, California •2. Hellisheiði power plant, Iceland •3. Cerro Prieto power station, Mexico •4. Tongonan, Philippines •5. Lardello, Italy
  • 21.
  • 22. The „Geysers“ • 15 power plants • 335 wells • Capacity: up to 1 GW • Average well deepth: 2600m • Type: Dry steam
  • 23. Hellisheiði • Type: Flash steam • 30 wells • Well depth: 2200m • 303 MW of electricity and 133 MW of district heat
  • 24. • Cerro Prieto: → all 5 units together ~ 720 MW • Tongonan: → 305 MW • Lardello: → 2013 will celebrate 100th. Anniversary → 34 units ~ 770 MW
  • 25. Sources • Wikipedia • “Geothermal Energy-Clean Power from the Earth's Heat“ • http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Power_Generation- Steam_Power • http://www.conserve-energy-future. com/GeothermalPowerPlantTypes.php • http://www.geysers.com/ • http://www.extremeiceland.is/en/information/about-iceland/ hellisheidi-geothermal-power-station