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introduction to Pathology ..ppt

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HistoPATHOLOGY
HistoPATHOLOGY
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introduction to Pathology ..ppt

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY SUNILKUMAR.P Haematology & Transfusion Medicine St.John’s Medical College Hospital Bangalore
  2. 2. • Overview of pathology.. • What is pathology (Definition).. • Branches of pathology.. • Evolution of pathology… • Histopathology..? • Clinical Pathology…? • Haematology….?
  3. 3. “Pathos” = suffering or disease “logos” = study Study of diseases Study of the structural and functional disease.
  4. 4. Definition • The word “ Pathology” is derived from two Greek words – Pathos means “Suffering” and logos meaning “ study”. • Pathology is thus , scientific study of structure and function of the body in disease
  5. 5. SUBDIVISIONS OF PATHOLOGY • Human pathology is the largest branch of pathology. • It is conventionally divided in to • A. General pathology = dealing with general principles of disease • B. systemic pathology= deals with study of diseases pertaining to specific organs and body systems. .
  6. 6. Subspecialties in Pathology • 1.Histopathology- • a. Surgical pathology • B. Forensic pathology & autopsy work • C. Cytopathology • 2. Haematology • 3.Chemical pathology • 4. Immunology • 5.Experimental pathology • 6.Geographic pathology • 7.Medical Genetics • 8.Molecular Pathology.
  7. 7. HISTOPATHOLOGY HAEMATOLOGY CLINICAL PATHOLOGY
  8. 8. Histopathology Definition it is a branch of pathology which deals with the study of disease in a tissue section.
  9. 9. The tissue undergoes a series of steps before it reaches the examiners desk to be thoroughly examined microscopically to arrive at a particular diagnosis. To achieve this it is important that the tissue must be prepared in such a manner that it is sufficiently thick or thin to be examined microscopically and all the structures in a tissue may be differentiated.
  10. 10. What is Clinical pathology…? • The branch of pathology dealing with the study of disease and disease processes by means of chemical, microscopic, and serologic examinations.
  11. 11. Haematology…?? • the branch of medicine involving study and treatment of the blood.
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION TO DEPARTMENT OF HISTOPATHOLOGY Histopathology is the department of clinical lab which deals with the study of diff types of tissues The department is based on following benches: • Processing • Gross • Tissue processing • Embedding,cutting,H&E • Immunohistochemistry • Special stains • Cytology • Cytogenetics
  13. 13. WHAT IS HISTOPATHOLOGY? Greek word Histo- tissue Pathos- disease suffering • refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. • histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, • after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides
  14. 14. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY 1.PROCESSING Specimen categories • Tissues (with history) • Bone (with x- ray) • Autopsy (consent form) • Body fluids • CSF
  15. 15. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  16. 16. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 2.GROSS SECTION (grossing) • specimens are inspected with the bare eye • diagnostic information • further microscopic examination. Tissues are saved in different cassettes having different color • Yellow (liver, renal) • Green (routine) • White(bones) • Grey(skin) • Pink(lymph nodes)
  17. 17. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  18. 18. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 3.TISSUE PROCESSING • fixing tissue into paraffin • dehydration and clearing • tissue is infiltrated with the embedding agent, (paraffin) • Tissue processing is always automated for the large volumes of tissues. • Automation consists of an instrument that moves the tissues around through the various agents on a preset time scale.
  19. 19. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  20. 20. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 4.EMBEDDING • Orientation of tissue in melted parafin which provide a firm medium for keeping all parts of tissue intact • Temp of parafin (58-60 C) • Instrument used (embedding station) CUTTING Microtome used for cutting about 3-5 micron H&E Hematoxlyin (water based dye) Eosin(counter stain) They stains nucleus & cytoplasm
  21. 21. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  22. 22. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  23. 23. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 5.IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY • Ag-Ab specific reaction • Clinical diagnosis and distinguishing diagnosis of tumor histogenesis • Can be used to locate particular cells and proteins • Can be used to identify cellular events – e.g.apoptosis
  24. 24. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  25. 25. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 6.SPECIAL STAINS • Required when diagnosis is not identified with H&E staining Some of the stains used are • Connective tissue ( rapid trichome) • Nucleic acid (methylene green pyronin) • Carbohydrates(PAS & PASD)
  26. 26. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  27. 27. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 7.CYTOGENETICS Study of chromosomes and its abnormalities • chromosome number • structure • function • behavior in relation to gene inheritance, • organization and expression Types of disorders: • Deletions • Inversions • Translocation • Addition(insertion)
  28. 28. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. Types of specimen • Blood • Bone marrow • Amniotic fluid Procedures done • Karyo typing • G-banding • FISH
  29. 29. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  30. 30. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 8.CYTOLOGY Study of cells to know the infection,pre malignant and malignanent changes 2 types of samples • Gyane (pap smears) • Non Gyane (bodyfluids,CSF,urine,pericardial,pleural.asitic.synovial)
  31. 31. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. Procedures done in cytology • FNAC • FNAB Staining in cytology • H&E • Pap • Dry (rapi) • Gimesa
  32. 32. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  33. 33. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. 9.SEMEN DR Fresh sample of seminal fluid is examined for : • Liquefaction • Motility • Number • Morphology Elements of analysis • Quantity • Color • Liquefaction • pH
  34. 34. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd.. Tests done are • Detailed report • IUI (intra uterine insemination) • Anti sperm antibody
  35. 35. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY contd..
  36. 36. THANKS

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