Blandy Experimental Farm

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Presentation by David Carr of Blandy Experimental Farm for a May 2012 Invasive Plant Workshop.

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Blandy Experimental Farm

  1. 1. University of Virginia’s Blandy Experimental Farm Interpretation the collections of theUniversity Orland E. WhiteResearch Public Outreach Arboretum
  2. 2. University of Virginia’s Blandy Experimental Farm Orland E. White ArboretumBlandy Experimental  Farm
  3. 3. Blandy Experimental FarmOrland E. White Arboretum
  4. 4. With 24% of the earth’s terrestrial vegetation classifiedas grasslands, they represent the most extensive of theearth’s biomes.
  5. 5. • Before settlement, grasslands stretchedsouth from Alberta, Saskatchewan, andManitoba to the highlands of Mexico andwest from Indiana to the Rockies.• Coverage was over 1 million squaremiles in the U.S. alone.• States have lost 82% - 99% of tallgrassprairie• States have lost 30% – 99% of mixedgrass prairie• States have lost 20% - 86% ofshortgrass prairie
  6. 6. There are 55 grassland animal species listed as either threatened or endangered in the United States.Lesser Prairie Chicken
  7. 7. Natural Grassland Communities of Virginia• Southern Appalachian Grassy Balds • Ultramafic Barrens – Mountain oat grass and sedges – Little bluestem, Indian grass – White-top Mountain – Franklin and Grayson Counties• Acidic Oak-Hickory Woodlands and • Riverside Outcrop Barrens Savannas – Big and little bluestem – Little bluestem, Indian grass, broom sedge – Patomac, Shenandoah, and James Rivers – Quantico Marine Base • Maritime Dune Grasslands• Low Elevation Acidic Outcrop Barrens – Cordgrass, beach grass, sea oats, little bluestem – Little blue, broom sedge, oat grass, sedges – Virginia coastal dunes – Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge • Riverside Prairies• Limestone and Dolomite Barrens – Big bluestem, Indian grass, switch grass – Big and little bluestem, Indian grass, side oats – Patomac River gorge – Western Valley and Ridge • Mesic & Wet-Mesic Prairies• Piedmont Prairies – Big bluestem and Indian grass – Little bluestem, Indian grass – Ridge and Valley region – Quantico, Ft. Pickett, Manassas
  8. 8. Modern-daygrasslands inVirginia existprimarily inagriculturalsettings.
  9. 9. Most Virginia grasslandsare dominated by exotic,cool-season grasses. Festuca elatior Tall fescue ‘Kentucky 31’
  10. 10. Henslow’s SparrowGrasshopper Sparrow
  11. 11. Big bluestem Little bluestem Broom sedgeSwitch grass Side-oats grama Indian grass
  12. 12. Photosynthetic Pathways • Spring and C3 early summer“Cool season • Drought grasses” intolerant • Mid - late C4 summer“Warm season • Drought grasses” tolerant
  13. 13. Bunch GrassesLittle bluestem Big bluestem
  14. 14. Tall Stature Big bluestem
  15. 15. Native Warm Season Grasses and Livestock Grazing
  16. 16. Sources for Warm Season Grass Seed• Ernst Conservation Seed – www.ernstseed.com• Bamert Seed Company – www.bamertseed.com• Prairie Moon – www.prairiemoon.com• Prairie Nursery – www.prairienursery.com
  17. 17. Site Preparation Site PreparationHerbicide Treatments Herbicide • Roundup® Sept. 1999 • Roundup® April 2000
  18. 18. Site Preparation Burn Virginia Department of Forestry 19 April 2000
  19. 19. No-tillWSG Drill VGIF May 2000
  20. 20. Setaria glaucaYellow foxtail
  21. 21. Cirsium and Carduus spp. Thistles
  22. 22. Lonicera japonicaJapanese honeysuckle
  23. 23. Galium verumPrior to Manipulation Yellow bedstraw
  24. 24. Sorghastrum nutans Indian grass
  25. 25. Important Collaborators• U.S.D.A. Natural Resource Conservation Service – Mike Liskey – Dr. Greg Moser• Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries – Patty Moore – Bonnie Larson-Brogdon• Virginia Department of Forestry – Gerald Crowell• Ernst Conservation Seed – Carl Ernst
  26. 26. Other Resources: Virginia Native Plant Society www.vnps.org Department of Conservation & Recreation www.dcr.state.va.us Virginia Working Landscapes www.vaworkinglandscapes.org
  27. 27. Other Resources:Blandy Experimental Farm blandy.virginia.edu David E. Carr blandy@virginia.edu

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