Some think fire ant’s competition and invasion of nests… pesticides…
Http://www.pollinator.org/zip-map.test.htm?zipcode=22151 This table can help you pick out the right kind of flower to attract the type of pollinator you want to inhabit your garden or field.
Quail have basic needs for food, water and protection. Biologists have categorized these into 3 habitat types. Let’s look at some examples of these habitats.
no fescue-convert 20% to nwsg
This scene has it all: A woody covey headquarters for protection from predators and the elements. Weedy corn stubble for seeds and insects to eat, and to roost in at night. And in the background, tall native grass, that are used for nesting and also for night roosts. Most importantly the quail only have to travel a few hundred feet to find everything they need. This scene is at Whetstone Creek Conservation Area, down I-70 west of Columbia.
example of checker board
Early Successional Habitat
EARLY SUCCESSIONAL HABITATThe Recipe for Bobwhite Quail, Turkey, Songbirds, Pollinators and So Much More… David A. Bryan Private Lands Wildlife Biologist VT Conservation Management Institute Quail Action Plan
Outline Definition of Early Successional Habitat Declines of Early Successional Wildlife Species Examples of Species Directly Impacted Northern Bobwhite Quail Songbirds Pollinators Development of Habitat on Your Land Problems and Solutions
So What is “Succession”?Natural Progression of Plants over Time Early Successional
Early Successional Habitat The plant community that emerges after land is set back to a bare ground state Looks “messy” Primary Components: Native Weeds Wildflowers Native Grasses Thickets Shrubs
So Why Does This Habitat Even Matter to Us? Let’s Look at the Wildlife
Northern Bobwhite By Bob Schamerhorn, iphotobirds.com
The Decline of Bobwhite Global Population as of 2007: ~5.5 Million An 82% Decline from ~31 Million in 1967 Misconceptions – Hunting, Predators Why? HABITAT, HABITAT, HABITAT! Other relatively small issues
Breeding Bird Trends by Habitat Type BBS Data: Eastern United States (1966 - 2005)
Breeding Bird Trends by Habitat Type BBS Data: Virginia (1966 - 2005)
VA BBS Results: Grassland BirdsGrasshopper Sparrow Eastern Meadowlark Brad Sillasen -1.9% /year -3.0% /year pastures, hay fields
VA BBS Results: Early SuccessionalBirds Northern -3.78 Bobwhite Yellow Warbler -3.75 Field Sparrow -3.08 Gray Catbird -2.37 Eastern Towhee -1.65 Indigo Bunting -0.67 Shrub/scrub, old fields, ROWs, regen. clearcuts
Other Species Impacted Pollinators Bees Butterflies Bats Other Insects From www.hiltonpond.org Hummingbirds Extremely Important for Food Sources Helpful to our Native and Ornamental Gardens
The Common Denominator: Early Successional Habitat Why is it a Decreasing Habitat? Clean Agriculture Decline in Family Farms Sprawl Wide variety of species Northern Bobwhite Quail Eastern Cottontail Rabbit and Small Mammals Pollinators – Butterflies, Bees, Hummingbirds Migratory and Breeding Songbirds
Case Study: Quail Management What do they need? Remember – Quail Habitat is Important to Other Species
Food Chick Diet: Largely Insects Pick wildflowers: Plains and Lanceleaf Coreopsis Black-eyed Susan Partridge Pea Goldenrods Coneflowers Primroses Native Sunflowers Plant large plots, not just patches in a garden, for best results
Resources for selecting native plants for pollinating insects: “Pollinator Syndromes” Pollinator Color Shape Scent Narrow tube with Butterflies Bright, red & purple spur, wide landing Faint, fresh pad Pale & dull, red Strong, sweet, Moths Regular or tubular purple, pink, white emitted at night Bright, white, yellow, Shallow, landing Bees blue, ultraviolet red, Fresh, mild platform, tubular purple, pink, white Regular, bowl- Dull, white, green, Strong, musty, Bats shaped, closed purple emitted at night during day Large, funnel-like, Bright, red, orange, Birds cups, strong perch None white support www.pollinator.org
Food cont. Adult Diet: Mainly seeds and fruits from legumes, shrubs, trees, crops Wildflowers Partridge Pea Crops Soybeans Millets Not the limiting factor, so don’t spend all of your time on food plots alone
Habitat Needs Desirable Grass, Forbs and Legumes – Seeds and Insects Early Successional Vegetation – Brooding/Nesting Woody Covey Headquarters – Protection
1st Element: Nesting Cover Ideal Nesting Cover – Herbaceous cover consisting of bunch grasses with forbs and low growing shrubby cover with the last year’s grass growth available (at least 12” tall) Little bluestem, big bluestem, indiangrass, sideoats grama, broomsedge bluestem, ragweed, native forbs. Also benefits nesting songbirds, rabbits, wild turkey, white-tailed deer (for bedding), etc.
BENEFITS OF BUNCH GRASSES Cooper’s Hawk’s Eye-View Quail’s Eye-View
2nd Element: Brood HabitatIdeal Brood Habitat – Plantcommunity (at least 40% of thearea) made up of annual forbs,legumes, and weeds. Must containbare ground (25-50% exposed soil)underneath a foliage canopy.Brood habitat will contain insectswhich are the most important fooditem for nesting hens and chicks.
3 Element: Covey Headquarters rd Consists of woody shrubs, low-growing trees, down tree structures, feathered edge. Ground cover within Headquarters must be sparse. 50 ft. X 30 ft. at a Minimum – 1,500 sq. ft.
What Limits Wildlife Use on Your Property?Let’s Look at a Series of Problems and Solutions
Problem: fescue From smallfarms.oregonstate.edu
Fescue field border with woody cover “ The Great Quail Barrier” Also bad for Rabbits, Cattle, Mares, etc.Solution: Kill the Fescue, Go Native
Converting Fescue to Native Grasses Best way to convert is a fall/spring system In September, hay the grass to take off old growth and wait for it to grow up to 6 inches tall In October, hit the fescue with 2.0 quarts per acre of glyphosate (e.g. RoundUp Ultra®) Next February, prep the field for planting Prescribed burning Dragging with a Chain Harrow, Log, etc.
Converting Fescue to Native Grasses Decide on second herbicide spray Option 1 – Wait until grass re-emerges and grows to 6 inches; spray with glyphosate at 2.0 quarts per acre; burn or drag Option 2 – Plant and then spray with imazapic (e.g. Plateau® or Panoramic®), a pre-emergent herbicide at 4.0 oz/acre Plant native grasses in early March Use native grass drill Use regular drill with a special native seed box Broadcast with a carrier (e.g. pelletized lime) at a rate of 20:1 if planting burry seeds All depends upon species you are using Maintain!
HerbicideApril 2004 May 2005 August 2005(Harper et al. 2007)
Problem: Limiting factor on most land is shrubby cover and diversity!Solution: Plant Native Shrub Islands or Hedgerows, Do Edge Feathering Suggestions: Winterberry Holly, Northern Spicebush, Indigobush, Chickasaw Plum, Black Chokeberry, Red Chokeberry
Problem:Habitats Spread Far Apart, Little Connection
Conclusions: What to Do? Native Warm Season Grass Plantings Field Borders Meadows Conversion of Fescue to Natives Shrub Plantings Regular Disturbance of Early Successional Habitat Prescribed Burning Light Disking
What’s Next? If Interested in More Information Contact James Barnes at PEC Contact Me: David.Bryan@va.usda.gov (540) 899-9492 ext. 101 THANK YOU! QUESTIONS?