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Marlboro and the Civil War


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Prepared and presented by Paul Brodeur and Alan Chamberlain for the Marlborough Historical Society on September 26, 2011, the 150 Anniversary of the Taking of the John Brown Bell from the Engine House at Harpers Ferry.
The fascinating account of the men and motives that led to the taking of the John Brown Bell from Harpers Ferry by a group of men from Co. I, 13th Mass Infantry during the Civil War. And the equally fascinating account of the completion of John Brown's task by these same soldiers.

Marlboro and the Civil War

  1. 1. Abolition, The War, The Bell An account of the dynamics in the town of Marlborough that led 16 soldiers to take the John Brown Bell and help to complete the object of John Brown’s Raid
  2. 2. Presented by Paul Brodeur and Alan Chamberlain For the The Marlborough Historical Society With the aid of Students from Marlborough High School Monday, September 26, 2011 The 150 Anniversary of the Taking of the John Brown Bell
  3. 3. Our Special Thanks to the Following Sources for Making This Presentation Possible
  4. 4. 13 th Mass Website at Copyright 2008 Brad Forbush And especially for all the personal assistance from Brad Forbush
  5. 5. The John Brown Bell <ul><li>Copyright 2008 by Joan Abshire </li></ul><ul><li>(Available as a free download from the link above.) </li></ul><ul><li>And most particularly for all of Joan's assistance, direction and inspiration. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cyrus Felton's two volumes of local history: Four Hundred Fifty Events Six Hundred Events Charles Hudson History of Marlborough Ella Bigelow Historical Reminiscences View the Hudson and Bigelow books, as well as other histories of Marlborough online at the Histories of Marlborough .
  7. 7. The Marlboro Daily Enterprise 1892 – 1920 & The Marlboro Mirror 1860-1865 <ul><li>With a special thank you to Kathy Lizotte Lynde for past, present and ongoing research which are the basis for much of what we know about the slaves of Harpers Ferry in Marlboro. </li></ul>
  8. 8. John Buczek's History of Marlboro Website at containing Paul Polewacyk's History of the Marlborough Fire Department
  9. 9. On Fast Day, which occurred Sept 26, 1861, Lieut. David L. Brown and fifteen others of the Company I crossed the river and procured a rope at a store nearby, then climbed to the roof of the engine house, disconnected the bell from the belfry and proceeded to lower it. Just as it reached the edge of the roof, the rope parted and the bell dropped striking on the flagstone, chipped off a few pieces from the flange, but not enough however to injure the tone of the bell. We then loaded it on the scows and took it across the river. Lysander Parker, under oath, 1909
  10. 10. 1. Absolutely Abolitionist Marlboro 2. The Motivation of the Fire Department 3. The Subject of John Brown's Raid 4. Marlboro Mirror, November 10, 1860 5. The Decision Makers
  11. 11. 6. The Start of War 7. The Taking of the Bell 8. Marching South 9. The Aftermath 10. The Object of John Brown's Raid 11. Timeline of the Bell
  12. 12. Absolutely Abolitionist Marlborough
  13. 13. Hon. John Parker Hale <ul><li>Dec 25, 1846 Hon. John Parker Hale of NH lectured in Marlborough Town Hall on “War, Slavery, and Abolitionism”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hale was newly elected to the Senate from NH and champion of the Free Soil movement determined to keep slavery out of the new territories. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a staunch opponent of the war with Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1852, John Parker Hale would be the Free Soil candidate for President, losing to Democrat Franklin Pierce. </li></ul><ul><li>The Free Soil party would be one of the key groups that led to the formation of the Republican Party in 1855. </li></ul>
  14. 14. O. W Albee <ul><li>Obadiah Wheelock Albee was born in Milford , MA. And graduated from Brown University in 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>His first position was as preceptor of the local Gates Academy in 1833. The Academy was located near the present Walker Building on Main St., and became Marlboro High School in 1851. Albee then became its first Principal. </li></ul><ul><li>Albee was an ardent abolitionist and Free Soil activist, and was instrumental in organizing the local Free Soil Meeting in 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from his role as educator, he was the State Representative for 4 years, the State Senator for 2 years, and a trial judge for 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every significant abolitionist activity in the Marlboro area bears his imprint. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Timeline 1848: Marlborough Free Soil Meeting 800 in attendance (Cyrus Felton) 1848: Harpers Ferry firehouse is built to house the equipment and fire bell for the National Armory (National Park Service)
  16. 16. Timeline Sept 18, 1850: The Fugitive Slave Act is passed, requiring any Federal Marshall or other official to aid in the return of slaves to their rightful owners. This begins the acceleration in the Underground Railroad throughout the country. A number of houses in Marlborough and Feltonville are converted to assist in the conveyance of slaves to Canada.
  17. 17. Timeline Nov 11 1850: The Substance of Resolutions passed this day in Marlborough Town Meeting. (Cyrus Felton) “ Massachusetts cannot become the hunting ground for slaves.” “ We most decidedly disapprove of the Fugitive Slave Law, and will not aid, but will in all suitable and proper ways resist its execution.” But very few voted nay.
  18. 18. Timeline April 12 th 1851 the East Meeting house bell tolled 75 times because Thomas Sims, a colored person was taken from Boston back to Georgia as a slave. It was 75 years since Independence had been declared. (Cyrus Felton)
  19. 19. The West Village of Marlboro, centered around the Second Parish Church (Unitarian), was a hotbed of Abolitionism led by Rev. Horatio Alger, father of noted Rags to Riches author Horatio Alger Jr. Within 20 years the West Village would become home to many French Canadians who had experienced abolition in Canada since 1833 and tended to vote Republican. Was this pure coincidence?
  20. 20. The Unitarian Church <ul><li>Rev. Horatio Alger </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mr. Alger’s pastorate lasted fourteen years. It was marked by ability, faithfulness, and especially by aggressive action on the slavery question.” </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Second Parish Church </li></ul><ul><li>by Edward Farwell Hayward </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Unitarian Church <ul><li>Rev. Horatio Alger </li></ul><ul><li>“… it was the duty of those churches who believed Slaveholding to be a sin, it being in diametrical opposition to the principles and spirit of Christianity, and put on record their determination to have no fellowship as Christians with it or those who are guilty of it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Quoted in </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Second Parish Church </li></ul><ul><li>by Edward Farwell Hayward </li></ul>
  22. 22. The State Disunion Convention held at Worcester, Mass. in January of 1857 was a unique exercise in northern secessionist thought.
  23. 24. (Gathered) for the purpose of considering the “practicability, probability, and expediency of a separation of the Free and Slave States”. Organizer: Rev. T. W. Higginson (Member of John Brown’s Secret Six) Among the six Vice Presidents: William Lloyd Garrison, Boston (publisher of The Liberator) Charles Brigham, Marlboro
  24. 25. “ Uncle Charles Brigham, ... a great temperance laborer and anti-slavery man, very public spirited and one of the founders and leading men of the Unitarian Church (Feltonville).” Ella Bigelow Historical Reminiscences of the Early Times in Marlborough
  25. 26. “ If the Union cannot stand the practical working of the truths enunciated in the Declaration of American Independence, it seems to me its value has been calculated. I am not, however, prepared to believe that the triumph of freedom requires the dissolution of the Union.” O.W. Albee Letter to the Worcester Disunion Convention
  26. 27. The Motivation of The Marlborough Fire Department
  27. 28. Fighting Fires in the Agricultural New England Towns in the Olden Days <ul><li>Mostly chimney fires or barn fires </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: Save the people, save the animals, save the tools </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: buckets, buckets and more buckets </li></ul>
  28. 29. Population Growth in Marlboro 1830-1860 <ul><li>1830: 2,074 </li></ul><ul><li>1840: 2,092 </li></ul><ul><li>1850: 2,941 </li></ul><ul><li>1855: 4,288 </li></ul><ul><li>1860: 5,910 </li></ul>
  29. 30. In 1850 Marlboro there were three villages, each distinct enclaves of small factories and closely packed multi story houses surrounding small commercial areas and a central main Church. All areas between the villages remained farmland with sparse housing.
  30. 31. The Villages of Marlborough 1856
  31. 32. The black circle shows the area between the present Mechanic St and Bolton St. There were no residences except the Howe house at the top of the circle. The white area shows that there were no homes between Fairmount Hill and the present Howe St. It was a swamp. The red line shows that there were no buildings between the present Monument Sq. and the present City Hall. Washington St. was a direct path through a field from the East Village Church to the cemetery. By the mid 1860’s these areas were substantially filled in.
  32. 33. The New Reality to Fighting Fires <ul><li>Buckets weren't good enough </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings were bigger, closer together </li></ul><ul><li>A more disciplined approach with more manpower and better equipment was needed. </li></ul>
  33. 34. This was the answer. An 1849 model hand tub pumper from the Howard & Davis Co. Boston. This is the actual pumper from the Marlboro East Village Torrent Company.
  34. 35. Timeline <ul><li>1849: Town meeting voted to purchase three new hand tubs from the Howard & Davis Co. Boston </li></ul><ul><li>1853: By an act of the Mass. State Legislature approval was received to create a Fire Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>1855: Marlborough Fire Department was formed </li></ul>
  35. 36. Sylvester Bucklin <ul><li>Pastor of First Church from 1806 – 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>At an advanced age became the champion of the Marlboro Fire Dept </li></ul><ul><li>By 1860 there were 87 volunteers prepared for fire duty. </li></ul><ul><li>A large percentage of these men became members of Co. I and Co. F of the 13 th Regiment. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Marlborough Firefighters and the Fireman's Muster July 4, 1849, the first fireman's hand engine muster was held in Bath, Maine. Marlborough that year received three new engines and two years later were contestants for the first time. Since that time Marlborough's engines have been prominent in most musters held in New England where they originated. Several of the largest, and best, were held in Marlborough&quot;. H.H Esterbrook, Westboro, circa 1922 Quoted in Paul Polewacyk's history of the Marlboro Fire Department on John Buczek's Marlboro History Website
  37. 38. Marlborough Firefighters and the Fireman's Muster <ul><li>Each village competed separately and an intense rivalry developed. It was the first instance of competition between Marlboro and what is now Hudson, a tradition that continues to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>There developed a sense of loyalty, community spirit and dedication to discipline within the members of the Fire Dept which continued to their time in service to the Union. </li></ul>
  38. 39. The Subject of John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry
  39. 40. John Brown <ul><li>Born in 1800 in Connecticut, moved around in his youth, partly in Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1846 he moved to Springfield, MA and became an expert in the wool industry. </li></ul><ul><li>His many travels brought him in contact with most of the leading abolitionists of his day. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, he developed relationships with the Secret Six, abolitionists mostly from Massachusetts who became his financial backers. </li></ul><ul><li>In October of 1859 he led the raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where his target was the Federal Armory, his first stop on a mission to free the slaves of the South. </li></ul>
  40. 41. An overhead view of Harpers Ferry. The Potomac River descends from the north and the Shenandoah comes in from the west. The white arrow is the relative position of the Engine House and the Red arrow is the substructure of the railroad bridge destroyed by the Confederates in the summer of 1861.
  41. 42. The bridge from the Maryland side looking at Harpers Ferry. The buildings left of center are the Wager Hotel buildings and just to the right a small water tower. Behind the tower sits the Engine House (not visible). Historic Photo Collection, National Historic Parks
  42. 43. These overhead street maps are from The Business Enterprises and Commercial Development of Harpers Ferry Lower Town Area, 1803-1861 by Charles W. Snell The circled area is the water tower. The Potomac River is to the right.
  43. 44. The Wager House Hotel complex including the Potomac Restaurant/Hotel was at times run as separate hotels but mostly as a single unit. The slaves of our story all would have worked in this area.
  44. 45. The Engine House where John Brown was isolated sat behind a fence and gate within the Armory complex and stood throughout the Civil War although all the buildings around it were totally destroyed.
  45. 46. The Raid, The Bell, & The Wager Hotel <ul><li>On the evening of October 16, 1859 John Brown and an 'army' of 23 men conspired to take hostages and take a large cache of weapons from the Armory. </li></ul><ul><li>Things immediately went bad and Brown decided to isolate a portion of the group with the hostages into the small firehouse that was used to protect the Armory. </li></ul><ul><li>The firehouse bell was a mere observer of events, but some later asserted that it was Brown's intention to ring the bell to promote a slave uprising. Makes for a good story. </li></ul><ul><li>The Wager Hotel was used as an overnight prison for captured abolitionists and, as William Geary reports, as a source of food for John Brown's prisoners. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Born a Slave But Made His Escape to Freedom Exciting Days In the Life of a Marlboro Barber “ Young (William) Geary was one of those who carried the breakfasts to the imprisoned men and in this way he had the opportunity of meeting John Brown.” Marlboro Daily Enterprise Wednesday, June 5, 1901
  47. 48. John Brown <ul><li>Eight, including John Brown were captured, tried and hung. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Lee commanded the contingent of Marines that stormed the firehouse. J. E. B. Stuart was his aide-de-camp who spoke with Brown about surrender. Brown refused. </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown was hung in Charletown, Virginia on December 2, 1859. Stonewall Jackson and John Wilkes Booth were there. Remarkably, when Booth was caught and killed after the assassination of Lincoln, a photo of his fiance was found in his pocket. None other than the daughter of famed abolitionist John Parker Hale who had spoken in Marlboro, Christmas, 1846.. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus Felton noted that on December 2, there was “an indignation meeting at Marlborough Town Hall, relating to the execution of John Brown in VA, a martyr to the cause of Human Liberty.' </li></ul>
  48. 49. from the Marlboro Enterprise – Monday, 30 May 1914 Mrs. Fanny Stanley, Who Died Saturday, Knew John Brown Personally “….when he was hung, she saw him go to his death on the scaffold. She was in a hotel at the time. She knew that he was to go to his death on that day and climbing to the topmost part of the hotel she saw the enactment of a tragedy that has gone down the ages. Mrs. Stanley said that when the drop was pulled, his face turned toward the north, prophetic of future development.”
  49. 50. There were no known, provable connections between the John Brown Raiders and Marlboro except perhaps the depth of their hatred of slavery.
  50. 51. Items from the Marlboro Mirror November 10, 1860
  51. 52. Items From the Marlboro Mirror November 10, 1860 <ul><li>In Marlborough, Lincoln received 516 out of 771 votes (66.92%) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ward Beecher was scheduled to deliver the kickoff lecture for the eighth season of Mechanics Institute lectures the following week. He had 500 offers to lecture and accepted 25. Marlborough was one of the 25. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mechanics Institute entertained many of the leading lecturers of the day. Abolition was a constant topic, although Temperance and world travel were frequent. Some of the important Abolitionists such as T. W. Higginson and Frederick Douglass spoke after the war on different topics. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Items From the Marlboro Mirror November 10, 1860 Anti-Slavery Lecture Mr. H. Ford Douglas, of Chicago, will lecture in Town Hall next Wednesday evening, Nov. 14 th at 7 o'clock. He will also lecture in the Baptist Church in Feltonville, on Thursday evening, 15 th at 7 o'clock.
  53. 54. H. Ford Douglas was a prominent Black Lecturer from Lincoln’s home state of Illinois. It is uncertain what words he spoke those two days in Marlboro, but it is likely that it reflected his disdain for the popular Lincoln as in this speech he gave in Framingham earlier that year.
  54. 55. H. Ford Douglas Speech at Framingham, July 4, 1860 <ul><li>“ I do not believe in the antislavery of Abraham Lincoln, because he is on the side of this slave power of which I am speaking, that has possession of the federal government. What does he propose to do? Simply to let the people and the territories regulate their domestic institutions in their own way.” </li></ul>
  55. 56. Douglas was correct. Although Lincoln was against slavery, his strategy was always to preserve the Union at whatever cost.
  56. 57. The Decision Makers Concerning the Bell The following men from Co. I, 13 th Regiment were among the older men from Marlboro who were either involved in the taking of the John Brown Bell or part of the chain of command. There were likely others who were probably killed during the war.
  57. 58. Capt. Moses Palmer <ul><li>Born in Derry, NH </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Marlboro in early 1850's to learn shoe-cutting. Went to Groton to superintend a new factory for Bigelow and Randall in 1854. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1858 he returned to Marlboro and opened a shoe factory with his brother until the War broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>Began as the elected Captain of Co. I, but was demoted to 1 st Lieut. When Governor Andrews made the political appointment of R.C. Schriber as Captain. </li></ul><ul><li>Schriber was depicted as a coward and a fraud. By October 1861 he had begun to seek other opportunities leaving Palmer as acting Captain. Later, the position was made official. </li></ul><ul><li>Palmer was not involved in the taking of the Bell but would surely have taken part in any discussion concerning its fate. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Lt. David Brown <ul><li>Brown was a carpenter who had a fire in his shop in 1851, and was a foreman of the Torrent Fire Co. (East Village) </li></ul><ul><li>He was named for his courage in Joseph Barry's book, “The Strange Tale of Harpers Ferry” </li></ul><ul><li>Elected as 1 st Lieut., he was bumped by the Shriber episode and reinstated in July. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Sergeant William Barnes <ul><li>William Barnes operated the Middlesex House Hotel on Main St. </li></ul><ul><li>He was also a member of the Torrent Fire Co. </li></ul><ul><li>His parent's family home had once been used as a quarantine home during Small Pox outbreaks and there was evidence that it may have been used as an Underground RR site as well. </li></ul>
  60. 61. The Middlesex House Hotel was once the Thayer Tavern built in the early 1800’s. It was demolished in the 1980’s. Rowe’s Funeral Home is to the left.
  61. 62. Lauriman Russell <ul><li>Lauriman H. Russell was born in 1820 making him, at 41, one of the oldest of the recruits in Marlboro. He was incorrectly listed as 34 in the Regimental records. He mustered in as a bugler. </li></ul><ul><li>He was from a large family of 17 children who lived at the Peter Rice house, home of the Marlboro Historical Society on Elm St. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a Civil Engineer and made a number of maps used in the war, including one of Harpers Ferry. </li></ul><ul><li>He lost two brothers in the war. </li></ul>
  62. 63. Russell’s advertisement in the Marlboro Mirror. O.W.Albee listed as a reference.
  63. 64. The Start of War The following slides were prepared and presented by Alan Chamberlain. Alan is a Civil War reenactor representing the 22 nd Mass. Regiment.
  64. 65. Union Forever 1 <ul><li>In the 6 months following the election of Abraham Lincoln to the US Presidency </li></ul><ul><li>events developed rapidly, leading the country into Civil War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eleven southern states seceded from the Union, declared themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Confederate States of America, attacked Federal installations & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobilized for war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Lincoln issued a call for volunteers to bolster the pre-war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,000+ man US Regular Army by over 100,000 men – many more later </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the North, reaction to the bombardment of Federal Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC </li></ul><ul><li>on April 12, 1861 was patriotic & swift </li></ul><ul><li>Northern states activated their state militias & recruited volunteers in the thousands </li></ul><ul><li>to fill regimental quotas to answer President Lincoln’s call – Massachusetts quickly </li></ul><ul><li>met the challenge </li></ul>
  65. 66. On May 25 th the Boston-based 4 th Battalion Rifles militia unit formed Companies A, B, C & D of the 13 th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry (MVI) with the Roxbury Rifles forming Company E – reported to Fort Independence, Boston Harbor By late-June five “suburban-based” companies completed the Regiment – 2 from Marlborough, Companies F & I – the 3 others from Stoneham (G), Natick (H) & Westboro (K) July 16 th the Regiment was mustered in with Samuel H. Leonard, former commander of the 4 th Battalion Rifles, as its Colonel July 29 th the 13 th MVI left Boston for the seat of war, arriving in Hagerstown, MD by August 1 st 2 Col. Samuel H. Leonard
  66. 67. 1861 August-September From Harrisburg, PA Aug. 1 st Aug. 5 th Aug. 23 rd Sept. 5 th Darnestown, MD Sharpsburg, MD Hagerstown, MD Sandy Hook, MD Washington, DC Baltimore, MD Potomac River Potomac River Shenandoah Valley August 1 st : Regiment attached to Gen. Banks’ division, Army of the Potomac - assigned to patrol & outpost duty on the upper Potomac River protecting the Union right flank 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: Full Regimental 1,000+ 10 days earlier (July 21 st ) Union forces had been routed at the 1 st Battle of Bull Run about 30 miles from Washington, DC – CSA Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earns his nickname, “Stonewall” July 21 st 1 st Battle of Bull Run 3
  67. 68. 1861 August-September From Harrisburg, PA Darnestown, MD Sharpsburg, MD Hagerstown, MD Sandy Hook, MD Washington, DC Baltimore, MD Potomac River Potomac River Shenandoah Valley September 1 st : Companies I & K detached to (opposite) Harper’s Ferry – Co. C detached to Monocacy Jct. – remaining 7 companies at Darnestown Monocacy Jct., MD Harper’s Ferry, VA Sept. 1 st Sept. 1 st 4
  68. 69. View of Harper's Ferry in 1859. The railroad bridge was destroyed by Confederates June 14 th 1861. Lock 33 of the Chesapeake & Ohio canal, where Companies I & K head-quartered, is visible across the river to the left side of the bridge. (Historic Photo Collection, Harper's Ferry NHP). 5
  69. 70. Harper’s Ferry, VA Sandy Hook, MD 1861 Battle of Bolivar Heights Oct. 16 th Pritchard’s Mill Sept. 15 th Skirmish at Beller’s Mill Sept. 2 nd Engagements of Companies I & K in Harper’s Ferry Vicinity Potomac River Shenandoah River Potomac River Harper’s Ferry, VA Sept 1 st -Oct 31 st “ John Brown Bell” Action Sept. 26 th Sept. 30 th : Co. C moves to Harper’s Ferry to reinforce Co.’s I & K Oct. 16 th : Battle of Bolivar Heights – Union grain stores defended at Herr’s Mill Oct. 31 st : Co’s C, I & K take canal boats up-river to rejoin Regiment at Williamsport, MD Pvt John L Spencer becomes 1 st man of Regiment killed by enemy fire Sept. 2 nd : Minor skirmish at Beller’s Mill just up-river from Harper’s Ferry Sept. 15 th : Scouting party led by Lt. David Brown, Co. I attacked at Pritchard’s Mill Sept. 26 th : Co. I contingent visits Harper’s Ferry Armory in the “John Brown Bell” action 6
  70. 71. Hancock, MD Hagerstown, MD Baltimore, MD Sharpsburg, MD Harper’s Ferry, VA Washington, DC Sandy Hook, MD Darnestown, MD Williamsport, MD 1861 October 1861-March 1862: Winter Camp at Williamsport, MD October ‘61-March ‘62 November-December: Skirmishes by detached companies at Hancock, MD 7
  71. 72. The Taking of the John Brown Bell
  72. 73. <ul><li>Most of the information on the taking of the John Brown Bell comes from two sources: an address given in April, 1901 by James Gleason, and the account given under oath by Lysander Parker in December, 1909 and later made into a booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>It is interesting to note that neither of these men were decision makers, but had key roles in the telling of the story. James Gleason was a 17 year old drummer and Lysander Parker was a 22 year old Private at the time of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>We lean heavily on local historian Joan Abshire's wonderful booklet on the Bell written in 2008. Other resources were found on John Buczek's local website. </li></ul>
  73. 74. Timeline for the Bell <ul><li>September 14, 1861 a map was drawn, probably by Lauriman H. Russell showing the major features of Harpers Ferry, including John Brown's Fort. It was in the possession of William Barnes and comes to us through the generosity of his family. </li></ul>
  74. 75. The map is drawn from the Maryland side with possible targets listed with reference numbers. The Engine House is number 7 and there is a prominent star beneath its position. (See next slide)
  75. 77. Map signed L.H. Russell CE (Civil Engineer)
  76. 78. Timeline for the Bell <ul><li>September 25: Sgt. William Barnes notes in his journal, “Co I & K went to Harpers Ferry. Co I got two bells.” It’s not clear that one of the Bells is the John Brown Bell. Notice that the date is one day off from the story. There could have been a number of bells in town from the heavy demolition that took place. The interesting thing is that all bells were targets for inclusion as scrap metal. </li></ul>
  77. 79. Timeline for the Bell <ul><li>Gleason: “Our Company got it into their head that it would have the bell and send it home for the fire department. So it was taken off the building and carried across the river and instead of taking it to Washington it was dumped into the canal and stayed there a while, until I think we got leave of our Major Gould to keep it.” </li></ul><ul><li>In an earlier interview in 1893 the story of dumping the Bell into the canal is seen as an action driven by Gleason himself. The column has so many obvious errors of fact, though, that the interview loses all credibility. </li></ul>
  78. 80. Timeline for the Bell <ul><li>Lysander Parker: “Realizing that our treasure was the property of Uncle Sam, we thought best to consult proper authority before proceeding further, and immediately through Major Gould, Provost Marshall of the13th at Sandy Hook, we made direct application to the Government for it and in due season received permission from the War Department to appropriate the bell.” </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that in Gleason’s account the permission stops at Major Gould whereas in Parker’s account the asking is immediate and through Gould to the War Department who issues the permission. Neither storyteller was in position to know for sure. </li></ul>
  79. 81. Timeline for the Bell <ul><li>The Role of Major Gould: </li></ul><ul><li>Major Gould was considered a great leader by all of his men, and he loved to go into battle with the men of the 13 th . </li></ul><ul><li>In the aftermath of the Battle of Bolivar Heights, Major Gould was disappointed with the official reports and press coverage which minimized the contributions of his men. </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Did his anger at his commanders affect in any way his decisions about the Bell? </li></ul><ul><li>Major Gould died of wounds received at Petersburg, April, 1864. At the time he was a Colonel with the 59 th MA Reg. </li></ul>
  80. 82. Timeline for the Bell <ul><li>Parker: At some point placed on the canal boat “Charles McCardell” which was used as the officers' quarters until on October 31, 1861, they left for Williamsport. </li></ul><ul><li>At Williamsport, they developed a relationship with Mr. and Mrs. Ensminger who owned some canal boats. </li></ul><ul><li>James Gleason got to know them well, as he would bring flour to Mrs. Ensminger to bake bread for the regiment. </li></ul><ul><li>When they left for battle on March 1, 1862, the Bell was left with the Ensmingers. </li></ul>
  81. 83. Marching South The following slides were prepared and presented by Alan Chamberlain
  82. 84. 1862 March Cross Potomac into Martinsburg, VA March 1 st Occupation of Winchester March 12 th -18 th March 1 st : Advance with Gen. Banks’ Corps across Potomac River into VA to counter CSA Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson’s operations in the Shenandoah Valley – 13 th MVI at vanguard entering Martinsburg, VA Potomac River Potomac River Shenandoah Valley Williamsport, MD Martinsburg, VA Winchester, VA Baltimore, MD Washington, DC March 12 th : Winchester, VA occupied 8
  83. 85. Williamsport, MD Martinsburg, VA Winchester, VA Baltimore, MD Washington, DC Berryville, VA Aldie, VA Centreville, VA Manassas, VA Catlett’s Sta., VA 1862 March-May March 21 st May 4 th Shenandoah Valley Spring 1862: 13 th MVI supports actions in the Shenandoah Valley – then diverted over the Blue Ridge Mtns. to Warrenton Jct. & Catlett’s Station, VA Potomac River Potomac River 9
  84. 86. Baltimore, MD Washington, DC Manassas, VA Catlett’s Sta., VA Warrenton, VA Alexandria, VA Falmouth, VA 1862 May-June May 13 th May 27 th May 25 th May 10 th : Join Gen. Irvin McDowell’s division – move to Falmouth, VA to join Gen. George McClellan’s forces which were about to launch the Peninsula Campaign May 10 th May 13 th : Re-directed back north to reinforce actions against CSA Gen. Jackson in his Shenandoah Valley campaign Potomac River 10
  85. 87. Baltimore, MD Washington, DC Manassas, VA Warrenton, VA Front Royal, VA Gainesville, VA Culpeper, VA 1862 June-August Battle of Cedar Mtn. August 9 th June 4 th -16 th July 5 th -21 st August 5 th Major-Gen John Pope’s Northern VA Campaign June 26 th -September 2 nd June 26 th : 13 th MVI joins Gen. John Pope’s Northern VA Campaign – offensive in Culpeper County August 9 th : Battle of Cedar Mountain – 13 th MVI fully ready to support, but not placed into action May 25 th -June 4 th : Move to Front Royal to pursue CSA Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson, but don’t participate in pursuit; held in reserve June 17 th : CSA Gen. Jackson sent south to defend Richmond June 13 th 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: 600 Potomac River 11
  86. 88. Washington, DC Warrenton, VA Gainesville, VA Culpeper, VA Cedar Mtn. Thoroughfare Gap Chantilly, VA Hall’s Hill, VA 1862 August-September Skirmishes August 28 th Second Battle of Bull Run August 30 th Aug. 9 th Sept. 2 nd -7 th August 30 th : Second Battle of Bull Run – CSA victory – 13 th MVI’s 1 st major engagement – 38 killed, dozens wounded or captured – Capt. Moses P. Palmer & 1 st Sgt. William Barnes, Co. I among wounded – Sgt. Barnes later loses leg August: Gen. Pope withdraws north – CSA Gen. Jackson out-flanks him & moves north as well August 28 th : Skirmishes at Thoroughfare Gap – 13 th MVI suffers 2 killed, 2 wounded 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: ~ 500 of 580 available Major-Gen John Pope’s Northern VA Campaign June 26 th -September 2 nd Potomac River 12
  87. 89. Baltimore, MD Washington, DC Sharpsburg, MD Boonesboro, MD Frederick, MD 1862 Battle of South Mtn. Sept. 14 th September Battle of Antietam Sept. 16 th & 17 th Major-Gen George McClellan’s Maryland Campaign Sept. 12 th -22 nd Sept. 7 th : Support Gen. McClellan’s Maryland Campaign to counter CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee Sept. 14 th : Battle of South Mountain – 13 th MVI engaged without loss Sept. 17 th : Battle of Antietam – 13 th MVI suffers heavy losses at Miller Cornfield (26 killed, 110 wounded or captured) – Pvt. Benjamin F. Russell, Co. I among wounded; dies Oct. 25 th – battle inconclusive – considered by some a Union strategic victory – CSA Gen. Lee withdraws south Sept. 7 th September 17 th 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: 301 men in  165 men out (45% casualties) Potomac River 13
  88. 90. Baltimore, MD Washington, DC Sharpsburg, MD Boonesboro, MD Bloomfield, VA Warrenton, VA Morrisville, VA Fletcher’s Chapel, VA 1862 September-December Mid-Nov. Battle of Fredericksburg Dec. 12 th -15 th Winter Camp at Fletcher’s Chapel Dec. 19 th -Jan. 19, 1863 Sept. 18 th -Oct. 26 th December 12 th -15 th : Battle of Fredericksburg – 13 th MVI occupied exposed position on Confederate right without severe losses (4 killed, 12 wounded) – another CSA victory Sept. 18 th -Oct. 26 th : 13 th MVI on duty around Sharpsburg, MD Oct. 27 th -Nov. 20 th : March back towards Falmouth, VA again in pursuit of CSA Gen. Lee December 4 th 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: ~ 300 men Potomac River 14
  89. 91. Falmouth, VA Fredericksburg, VA Fitzhugh’s Crossing Fletcher’s Chapel Battle of Chancellorsville May 2 nd -5 th 1863 January-May January 20 th -24 th : Gen. Ambrose Burnside’s failed “Mud March” near Fredericksburg Apr. 29 th -30 th : Fitzhugh’s Crossing – 2 killed – Pvt. John S. Fay, Co. F severely wounded, right arm & right leg amputated to save his life, is captured & sent to CSA Libby Prison May 2 nd -5 th : Battle of Chancellorsville – another CSA victory – 13 th MVI 1 killed, 8 wounded – “Stonewall” Jackson is wounded by “friendly fire”, loses left arm & dies from pneumonia (May 10 th ) – serious blow to CSA leadership & morale Chancellorsville Campaign January 1 st 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: < 350 men Rappahannock River Jan. 26 th -Apr. 27 th : 13 th MVI on duty in vicinity of Falmouth,VA 15
  90. 92. Emmitsburg, MD Jefferson, MD Baltimore, MD Barnesville, MD Washington, DC Guilford Sta., VA Bealton Sta., VA Deep Run White Oak Church Manassas, VA 1863 June-July Battle of Gettysburg July 1 st -3 rd Shadowing/Pursuit of CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee June 12 th -July 1 st June 12 th June 12 th -July 1 st : CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee launches campaign to invade North, draw Union into major battle & possibly attack Washington, DC – 13 th MVI with 1 st Corps marches 160 miles from Rappahannock River to Gettysburg, PA to pursue/shadow Lee’s advance July 1 st : 13 th MVI heavily engaged on Gettysburg’s 1 st Day … Gettysburg Campaign 16
  91. 93. Peach Orchard Lutheran Seminary Cemetery Hill 1863 Battle of Gettysburg July 1 st -3 rd Oak Hill July 1 st Noon July 1 st 4 PM Afternoon/Evening July 2 nd July 3 rd 3 PM 1 st Corps Morning July 1 st July 1 st 11 AM 11 th Corps July 1 st , 11 AM: 13 th MVI arrives at Lutheran Seminary – construct earthworks July 1 st , Noon: Advance to near Mummasburg Rd. & heavily engage enemy July 1 st , 4 PM: Withdraw through town to Cemetery Hill – 90 taken prisoner, ~ 70 make it through 13 th MVI’s July 1 st losses: 24 killed, 63 wounded, 98 captured – Pvt. John M. Russell, Co. I killed; Capt. Moses P. Palmer, Co. I wounded again July 2 nd -3 rd : Held in reserve Mummasburg Rd Emmitsburg Rd 17
  92. 94. Emmitsburg, MD Baltimore, MD Washington, DC Gettysburg, PA Boonesboro, MD Burkittsville, MD Middleburg, VA Warrenton, VA Rappahannock Sta. Mitchell’s Sta. Potomac River 1863 July-December July 6 th July 16 th July 27 th July 4 th Winter Camp at Mitchell’s Sta. Dec. 26 th -Apr 26 th 1864 Pursuit of retreating CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee July 4 th -24 th July 4 th -24 th : Pursuit of retreating CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee July 27 th -Oct. 9 th : Picket duty on Rappahannock & Rapidan Rivers July 23 rd Nov. 26 th -Dec. 2 nd : Mine Run Campaign – planned charge suspended Dec. 26 th -Apr. 26 th 1864: Winter Camp – picket duty guarding Orange & Alexandria Railroad July 10 th 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: ~ 78 men 18
  93. 95. Washington, DC Rappahannock Sta. Wilderness Richmond, VA 1864 May-July Battle of the Wilderness May 5 th -7 th Heavy skirmishing (4 killed, 9 wounded) Grant’s Overland Campaign March 1864: Gen. Ulysses S. Grant takes command of the Union Army – 13 th MVI’s severely depleted 1 st Corps consolidated into 5 th Corps May 4 th : Gen. Grant launches his Overland Campaign towards Richmond, VA – CSA Gen. Lee moves to counter Grant’s advances May 5 th -7 th : Battle of the Wilderness – 13 th MVI suffers 4 killed, 9 wounded in heavy skirmishing May 6 th 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: 169 men 19
  94. 96. Rappahannock Sta. Wilderness Spotsylvania C.H. Richmond, VA 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania May 8 th -12 th Considerable losses from 3 long charges (12 killed, 12 wounded) Grant’s Overland Campaign May-July May 10 th 13 th MVI Fighting Strength: 107 men Washington, DC May 8 th -12 th : Battle of Spotsylvania Court House – 13 th MVI involved in three ½-mile charges – suffers 12 killed, including 1 st Lt. Charles W. Whitcomb, Co. A, and 12 wounded 20
  95. 97. Rappahannock Sta. Wilderness Spotsylvania C.H. North Anna River Richmond, VA 1864 Battle of North Anna River May 23 rd -26 th Repulsed Confederate attack (5 wounded) Grant’s Overland Campaign May-July Washington, DC May 23 rd -26 th : Battle of North Anna River – 13 th MVI repulses attack by CSA Gen. A.P. Hill – 5 wounded 21
  96. 98. Rappahannock Sta. Wilderness Spotsylvania C.H. North Anna River Cold Harbor Richmond, VA 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor June 1 st -12 th Held in reserve (2 killed, 6 wounded at Bethesda Church June 3 rd ) Grant’s Overland Campaign May-July Washington, DC June 1 st -12 th : Battle of Cold Harbor – 13 th MVI held in reserve except June 3 rd – 2 killed, 6 wounded at Bethesda Church 22
  97. 99. Rappahannock Sta. Wilderness Spotsylvania C.H. North Anna River Cold Harbor Richmond, VA White Oak Swamp 1864 Battle of White Oak Swamp June 13 th Heavy skirmishing (1 wounded) Grant’s Overland Campaign May-July Washington, DC June 13 th : Battle of White Oak Swamp – 13 th MVI has 1 wounded in heavy skirmishing 23
  98. 100. Rappahannock Sta. Wilderness Spotsylvania C.H. North Anna River Cold Harbor Richmond, VA Petersburg, VA White Oak Swamp 1864 Siege of Petersburg June 16 th -July 14 th (5 killed) Grant’s Overland Campaign July 21 st : 13 th MVI reaches Boston with 17 officers & 265 men – mustered out August 1 st on Boston Common after 3 long years of valiant service! May-July June 16 th : 13 th MVI moves to join on-going Siege of Petersburg – 5 killed over 3-4 weeks July 14 th : 13 th MVI’s term of service ends – recent recruits & re-enlistments transferred to 39 th MVI July 18 th : 3-year veteran Cpl. William F. Brigham, Co. F dies in Washington, DC Washington, DC 24
  99. 101. History of the 13 th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Summary of Men Killed or Mortally Wounded <ul><li>Pritchard’s Mill, September 15,1861…………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughfare Gap, August 28, 1862…………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Bull Run, August 30, 1862………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Antietam, September 17, 1862…………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862……………………………... </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzhugh Crossing, April 30, 1863………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellorsville, May 4, 1863…………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg, July 1-4, 1863………………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilderness, May 5, 1864………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Spotsylvania, May 8, 1864………………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Bethesda Church, June 3, 1864………………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Petersburg, July, 1864…………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>An additional 40 men died of disease </li></ul><ul><li>In total, over its 3 years of service, 1,439 men served in the 13 th MVI </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>38 </li></ul><ul><li>26 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>24 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>12 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>121 </li></ul>
  100. 103. The Aftermath
  101. 104. Capt. Moses Palmer <ul><li>Wounded 3 times at 2 nd Bull Run including a bullet that passed through his upper neck and jaw, wounded slightly at Fredericksburg, and received a crippling wound at Gettysburg. He was on crutches the rest of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the war he married Martha Green of Groton and returned to Groton after the war. </li></ul><ul><li>He became a successful farmer, served 12 years as a selectman, and served as a state rep and state senator. </li></ul>
  102. 105. Lt. David Brown <ul><li>He was promoted to Captain and after resigning with the 13 th in March of 1863, took up with Co. E of the 5 th Mass Regiment where he mustered out as Captain in November of 1864. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a reference to him as constable in Marlboro in 1865, and he was on the committee that erected the Civil War Monument at Monument Sq. in 1868. </li></ul><ul><li>He died in 1869 at the age of 41. </li></ul>
  103. 106. Sergeant William Barnes <ul><li>Badly wounded and lost a leg at 2 nd Bull Run. Nursed to health by Clara Barton and his wife Arathusa. </li></ul><ul><li>Went into the insurance business after the war. His wife, Arathusa, was the moving force behind a GAR support group for wounded Civil War veterans. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, they continued the family tradition of community service. </li></ul>
  104. 107. Lauriman Russell <ul><li>Detailed as Asst. Engineer in Convalescent Camp, Alexandria, Va. </li></ul><ul><li>Discharged from the army on Surgeon's Certificate of Disability, Dec. 23 1863. </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Winthrop after the war. Continued to work as an Engineer. </li></ul>
  105. 108. Of the sixteen men who took the John Brown Bell seven died during the war and one shortly after. We can conclude that the men responsible for the taking of the Bell were men of heroic stature. Men who fought and died or were horribly wounded. To these men as to so many others we owe the preservation of the Union.
  106. 109. The Object of John Brown's Raid The Slaves of Harpers Ferry
  107. 110. “ I have, may it please the Court, a few words to say. In the first place, I deny everything but what I have all along admitted, the design on my part to free the slaves. I intended certainly to have made a clean thing of that matter, as I did last winter, when I went into Missouri and there took slaves without the snapping of a gun on either side, moved them through the country, and finally left them in Canada. I designed to have done the same thing again, on a larger scale. That was all I intended. I never did intend murder, or treason, or the destruction of property, or to excite or incite slaves to rebellion, or to make insurrection.” John Brown’s final speech.
  108. 111. The following individuals were the object of John Brown’s Raid. Slaves who lived in Harpers Ferry and at one time or another worked as slaves in the Wager Hotel complex.
  109. 112. Fannie (Geary) Stanley and Arenia Geary (from Fannie's obituary in The Marlboro Enterprise, Monday, May 30, 1914) <ul><li>“ With her mother, she worked in a hotel not far from her birthplace.” </li></ul><ul><li>She witnessed John Brown’s arrest and removal to Charlestown. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Later still, when he was hung, she saw him go to his death on the scaffold.“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ When the war swept over the country she was working at the same (Wager) hotel, and by dint of extra effort she and her mother accumulated enough money to take them to the north.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ About that time soldiers of the 13th Mass. Regt. were stationed in that vicinity and Mrs. Stanley, making their acquaintance, came north with them. The soldiers were from Marlboro and by their advice daughter and mother came here.” </li></ul>
  110. 113. This photo was taken at Williamsport, MD, probably by George L.Crosby a photographer and artist from Marlboro who had signed up with Co. F and brought his equipment with him. The camp follower slaves were known as ‘contraband’. There is every possibility that the two women to the right are Arenia and Fanny Geary, though without pictures to compare there is no way of knowing for sure. (enlargement following slide)
  111. 115. Fannie (Geary) Stanley and Arenia Geary (from Fannie's obituary in The Marlboro Enterprise, Monday, May 30, 1914) <ul><li>“ The young colored girl secured employment in a hotel, where Dr. C. L. Cutler's residence is now located. “ Sgt. William Barnes Middlesex House Hotel was owned and operated by someone else at the time, but it seems like more than just coincidence that Fannie ends up here. </li></ul>
  112. 116. Fannie (Geary) Stanley and Arenia Geary (from Fannie's obituary in The Marlboro Enterprise, Monday, May 30, 1914) <ul><li>“ She attended the Washington st. school when over 30 years of age, and was immensely popular with teachers and pupils alike. When she finished her education she was remarkably adept at reading, figuring and penmanship.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ She married John Stanley, a die maker, and he died about 12 years ago. She leaves a daughter, Mrs. Ella Stanley (Geary) . She was a member of the First Baptist church. The funeral will take place at the First Baptist church this Monday afternoon at 3:30.” </li></ul>
  113. 117. from the Marlboro [MA] Enterprise – Tuesday, 31 May, 1914 FUNERAL OF MRS. STANLEY HELD IN BAPTIST CHURCH <ul><li>“ Lysander P. Parker, who is probably the only survivor of those who helped to bring the historic John Brown bell to Marlboro, and who was one of the soldiers of the 13th Mass. that advised the woman to come to Marlboro, was present at the funeral.” </li></ul>
  114. 118. William H.H Geary (From an interview in the Marlboro Enterprise, June 5, 1901) <ul><li>“ He was born he said, near Sharpsburg, Maryland. ... His father and mother were the parents of sixteen children- all the property of Rev. Robert DOUGLAS, a clergymen of the Dutch Reformed church.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He was later sent to work in a hotel in Harpers Ferry.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ After the outbreak of the war he left Harpers Ferry with Gen. Patterson's division as a follower of the 19 th NY regiment....(he) was afterwards captured at Pooleville, thrown into prison, and when it was discovered who his master was, he was sent back to Sharpsburg.” </li></ul><ul><li>Patterson arrived in Harpers Ferry in July, left shortly thereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>Geary was arrested according to the Fugitive Slave Law which was still being enforced in some places. </li></ul>
  115. 119. William H.H Geary (From an interview in the Marlboro Enterprise, June 5, 1901) <ul><li>“ Five minutes was his length of time (at Sharpsburg) and he ran away again...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He went straight to Harrisburg, Pa. As luck would have it, he met Fanny Geary afterward Stanley, a cousin and two other young people who were related to him. The people he met so unexpectedly had been with the 13 th Mass Regiment with which a number of Marlboro soldiers were affiliated.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mr. Geary with his new found companions lost no time in coming north and in July 1862, they reached the friendly hillsides of Marlboro. Mr. Geary first worked for Lambert Bigelow with whom he remained a year. He then went to Worcester where he learned the barber trade from the well known Professor Walker.” (Lambert Bigelow died in 1863) </li></ul>
  116. 120. William H.H Geary (From an interview in the Marlboro Enterprise, June 5, 1901) <ul><li>The article goes on to say that William Geary left Marlboro after barbering there for a short period in 1865, and returned after about 13 years, establishing a shop at 420 Lincoln St. next to Forest Hall, (located where the Marlboro Wire Goods, now condominiums are located) where he worked for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>His family record is incomplete, but one of his sons married Ella Stanley and they had twelve children. Another son became the first Black lawyer in Maine. </li></ul>
  117. 121. Luke Goins <ul><li>According to his obituary, Luke Goins was born in 1833 in Shepardstown, VA. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a slave of Mr. Carroll who owned the Wager Hotel and who hired him out to a hotel in Baltimore. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Carroll died of cholera in 1850, which would mean that Luke Goins was not present during the John Brown raid. </li></ul><ul><li>From Baltimore, he escaped first to Philadelphia and then became a sailor, serving in that capacity during the Civil War. </li></ul>
  118. 122. Luke Goins <ul><li>After the war, he returned to Harpers Ferry and met with Mr. Carroll's widow. </li></ul><ul><li>He married Annie Brown in Martinsburg, WV. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 there was a great flood that affected the area. Mrs. Carroll was killed and this event probably caused Luke Goins to move to Marlboro with the assistance of Fannie Geary Stanley. </li></ul><ul><li>Luke and Annie Goins had 13 children two who died in infancy. </li></ul>
  119. 123. Luke Goins <ul><li>According to his granddaughter Anna Walker, Luke Goins “had a neighborhood parade each night in the summer, which he led playing the flute. The children all had flutes and drums and marched through 'Little Canada' and up 'French Hill' and all the neighborhood children joined in the march. </li></ul><ul><li>“ He was familiar with the ring of the John Brown Bell and was instrumental in identifying it when it was brought here by the Civil War veterans.” </li></ul>
  120. 124. Luke Goins <ul><li>At the reception of Mrs. Snyder in 1893, Hattie Goins, daughter of Luke and Annie Goins, sang a solo. </li></ul><ul><li>Luke Goins died on September 26, 1896, the 35 th anniversary of the taking of the Bell from Harpers Ferry. </li></ul><ul><li>The Marlboro Senior Center hall is named after Anna Walker, granddaughter of Luke and Annie Goins and long time dance instructor in Marlboro, for her contributions to civic life. </li></ul>
  121. 126. While Marlboro had little to do with the Subject of John Brown or his raid on Harpers Ferry, it had everthing to do with the Object of the raid, which was to bring the slaves of Harpers Ferry to the safety of the North. In Marlboro, they found housing, employment, education and a place in the community.
  122. 127. Timeline of the Bell In Marlboro
  123. 128. The Visit to Mrs. Snyder <ul><li>James Gleason plays a pivotal role in the recovery of the Bell. His relationship with Mr. and Mrs. Ensminger during his time at Williamsport allowed for him to boldly seek them out when they returned in 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for the visit was the 26 th GAR Encampment held in Washington, DC in September of 1892. Perhaps it was all the war stories told at that time that led them to take a side trip to see their old friends, the Ensmingers. </li></ul><ul><li>The entourage included six men and their sons, an uncertain number. This is known from an interview in 1944 with Dick Parker, son of Lysander Parker who was there. The group arrived late in the evening at Williamsport and were refused lodging by a southern sympathizer. They decided to go to the home of the Ensmingers, finding that Mr. Ensminger had died, but that his widow had remarried and again widowed and was now Mrs. Snyder. She met them, recognized them, welcomed them, and put them all up for the night. </li></ul><ul><li>On discovering that she still had the Bell, a settlement sum of $150 was agreed on to cover her costs for having shipped their clothing back to Marlboro (it was all lost). This sum was covered by ‘people from Marlboro’. </li></ul><ul><li>In a July 8 1893 interview with the Marlboro Enterprise on the occasion of her visit to Marlboro it was revealed that the Ensmingers were both Democrats and slaveowners. During the nearby battle of Antietam, her husband had filed off ‘the last figure of the date cast upon the bell’ to conceal its origin. </li></ul>
  124. 129. Timeline of the Bell <ul><li>1892 Bell traveled by rail from Williamsport, MD installed on the GAR Bldg at corner of Main St and Rawlins Ave. </li></ul><ul><li>1893 Mrs. Snyder given a reception at the GAR in Marlboro. </li></ul><ul><li>1901 James Gleason gives address to Sons of Veterans at GAR hall. </li></ul><ul><li>1903 James Gleason accompanies the Bell to Charlestown, MA where it appears in a parade with the Liberty Bell. </li></ul>
  125. 130. Timeline of the Bell <ul><li>1906: James Gleason dies at the age of 63. </li></ul><ul><li>1909: Lysander Parker gives his statement under oath to John S. Fay, Justice of the Peace </li></ul>
  126. 131. John S. Fay <ul><li>John S. Fay was certainly one of the most respected men in Marlboro, in Massachusetts, perhaps the entire Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>As a member of Co. F 13 th Regiment he had lost both his right arm and his right leg from wounds received at Fitzhugh’s Crossing. Shortly after his amputations he and his surgeon were taken prisoners of war and sent to Libby Prison. </li></ul><ul><li>At wars end he was made Postmaster in Marlboro, a position he held into the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>As Postmaster, he was the highest ranking Federal official in Marlboro. </li></ul><ul><li>As a member of the 13 th , he was the ideal man to have accepted the oath of Lysander Parker concerning the Bell. </li></ul>
  127. 132. Timeline of the Bell <ul><li>Bell was rung at the death of each Civil War veteran. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1960's, the GAR building was considered beyond repair and it was decided to tear down the building. </li></ul><ul><li>A group led by Ray Cahill of the Marlboro Chamber of Commerce, George Whapham of the American Legion and Rep. Philip Philbin and others arranged to build the present tower on Union Common in 1968. </li></ul><ul><li>48 men were listed as volunteers who contributed to the building of the tower </li></ul>
  128. 133. Timeline of the Bell <ul><li>In 1978 there was an Anniversary ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the members of the tenth anniversary committee were listed Gov. Michael Dukakis, Senator Edward Kennedy, Rep Joseph Early and Rep Joseph Navin. The Bell was clearly considered a political asset. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bell ringers in 1978 were: </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Norma Brown Yuryan, </li></ul><ul><li>granddaughter of 1 st Lt. David L Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Anna Walker </li></ul><ul><li>granddaughter of Luke Goins </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Ralph Ricciutti </li></ul><ul><li>wife of the designer of the Tower </li></ul>
  129. 134. The Ringing of the John Brown Bell in Marlboro on the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of John Brown’s Raid October 16, 2009
  130. 135. The Funeral of Fannie Geary Stanley Baptist Church, Monument Sq. 1914 There is an image in my mind that best summarizes the topics of this evening. It is a canvas that depicts the funeral of Fannie Geary Stanley at the Baptist Church at Monument Sq. in 1914. The image is drawn from about the position of the entrance to Granger Blvd with a wide angle so as to include both the Baptist Church to the left and the corner of Rawlins Ave. to the right. On that corner stands the old GAR building, since demolished, and below it, on the street stand two men, rope in hand, pulling to ring the bell above. They are wearing firemen’s hats of the day. Just below the bell a plaque that reads “The John Brown Bell”. The Bell sits about the same relative distance from the Baptist Church as it did from the Wager Hotel in Harpers Ferry. In the center of the image stands the Civil War monument, and on it the names of some of the men who Fannie Geary might have met and spoken to in Williamsport, MD, before they went south to the battles in which they died, and Fannie went north to her freedom in Marlboro. She surely would have known that all the men inscribed on that monument had died to purchase that freedom.
  131. 136. To the left of the image stand two people in front of the Baptist Church. One is an old soldier, dressed in his best uniform, by the name of Lysander Parker. The other is a beautiful young black woman in a flowing dress. Her name is Fannie Geary Stanley. The soldier is holding her hand gently and tipping his ornamental hat as if to say, “Glad you could come, ma’am, I hope you enjoyed your stay. Godspeed”. The Bell that sits at the Union Common is a National Treasure with national symbolism. But in Marlboro the symbolic freedom it represents is embellished with other values of equal importance. The values of self-sacrifice, of loyalty to one’s word, and, as depicted in the scene at the Monument, of charity and hospitality to strangers met along the way. We hope you’ve enjoyed our presentation tonight. We in Marlboro are not only stewards of the Bell, but stewards of the ideals that it represents. Our hope is that we are somehow led to celebrate these ideals and values in various ways in our community life.
  132. 137. From the Cutting Room Floor The following slides are of interesting figures of Marlboro History that played a part in that period of time but were not directly involved in the story of the Bell.
  133. 139. Marlboro’s View of Sherman from the Marlboro Mirror, March 1861 <ul><li>Curiosity has been excited of late, by the appearance in the public journals of the name of Col. Sherman, who as the leader of a gang of freebooters, seized in the waters of the harbor of Galveston, Texas, a New Bedford ship laden with oil, she being there engaged in lawful commerce. But for the seizures recently inaugurated in ports of the seceded States, of vessels engaged in trade, this act would be perhaps unprecedented. </li></ul><ul><li>As this redoubtable Col. Originated in Marlboro, a brief sketch of his life may not be uninteresting to most of our readers; doubtless there are many who still remember him. </li></ul><ul><li>Sidney Sherman, the subject of this article, is the son of Micah Sherman, Esq. (and Susannah his wife) who resided in the house now occupied by Mr. Winslow Barnes. Here in July, 1805, Sidney was born. He was the fourth of six children two of which (sisters) we are informed now reside in Northboro. About six years after his father’s death, which took place in December, 1816, Sidney went to Boston, where he engaged as a clerk in a dry goods store for a short time; when he left for New York, and went thence to Ohio a few years later. </li></ul><ul><li>It is perhaps worthy of a remark, that while in New York, it is said he was engaged in some transactions of “finesse”, as they are termed, of a character not very enviable, initatory doubtless to the business in which he has since been engaged. Leaving Ohio, on the commencement of the revolution in Texas, he followed a company of volunteers under Houston, to assist in establishing under the folds of the Lone star banner, the independence of that once Glorious Republic. “Alas, how the mighty have fallen.” A freebooter he went there, and most consistently he has adhered to his calling, and “tis no sin for a man to labor in his vocation.” He was at the battle of San Jacinto, and is said has since disputed the honors of that engagement with his former leader. Some few years since he came to Boston on a Texas Railroad mission, and there are still those who doubtless have occasion to recollect the anxious days they passed after his departure in waiting for dividends and huge profits he promised them for their liberal contributions in aid of the aforementioned scheme, but which have never been realized. Sidney is described as a dull boy when at school, by those who were his associates, and as evincing little of that spirit which has so eminently characterized his career since he left. </li></ul><ul><li>His parents sleep a little to the east and northward from the tombs in the old burying ground in the East Village. </li></ul><ul><li>Until his recent exploit his military (or naval, it is difficult to say which) genius seems to have remained dormant, but he again appears as one of the heros of the age and doubtless Marlboro is destined to furnish her quota in filling the niches in the balhalla of great names, and that are to adorn the pages of history. </li></ul>
  134. 141. Charles Hudson, In Memoriam by Henry M. Smith
  135. 142. Charles Hudson, In Memoriam by Henry M. Smith Speeches: Discriminating Duties, 1841; The Annexation of Texas; The Tariff, 1846; The Wheat Trade of the Country, 1846; The Mexican War; The President’s Message on the War with Mexico, 1846; The Three Million Appropriation Bill, 1847; The Cost of the Mexican War, and the Finances of the Country, 1848; The Constitutional power of Congress over the Territories and the Right of Excluding Slavery Therefrom, 1848.
  136. 143. Charles Hudson, In Memoriam by Henry M. Smith
  137. 145. George L. Crosby <ul><li>Crosby moved to Hannibal Missouri after the war, opened up a photo and painting studio, married and had two children. </li></ul><ul><li>He has two paintings in the Mark Twain Museum in Hannibal. </li></ul><ul><li>His life and those of his family ended tragically. The death notice appears next. </li></ul>
  138. 146. Hannibal Clipper Newspaper June, 1877 <ul><li>The local columns of The Clipper to-day contain the full particulars of one of the most distressing casualties which has ever occurred in this city. Mr. George L. Crosby, with his wife and two children, embracing we may say an entire family, were drowned in the outskirts of the city during the hard rain of yesterday afternoon, by being precipitated into a swollen stream, by the sinking of a bridge which they were attempting to cross with a horse and carriage. The occurrence is one which shocks a whole community; causes poignant grief and distress to relatives and friends, and furnishes the most forcible and impressive illustration possible of the brittle thread by which human life is suspended. </li></ul>
  139. 149. We wish to thank the following students of Marlboro High School for their contributions to our celebration
  140. 150. Readers Eleni Kisty Samantha Perlman Michael LeBlanc Jonathan Dell Isola
  141. 151. Poster Design and Artwork Aidan Steadman Thais Valadares
  142. 152. Members of the Marlboro High School Accapella Choir Bruce Bausk Cairo Marden Mendes Jay Maenhout Sarah Symes Eva Kotsopoulos Katie Hermann Ali Russo Jon Van Lingen
  143. 153. We also thank the following members of the Marlboro High School Faculty and Staff for their coordination and support Ms Maureen Greulich Ms Julie Baker Mr. Bruce Kurth Ms. Shannon Phypers Mr. Jonathan Rosenthal
  144. 154. Bibliography All of the publications below are available at the Marlboro Public Library and the Marlboro Historical Society. Links to online, full-text versions of several of the publications below can be found at the Society’s website . <ul><li>History of the Town of Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li> by Charles Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Reminiscences of the Early Times in Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li>by Ella Bigelow </li></ul><ul><li>Four Hundred Fifty Events in Marlborough and Neighboring Towns </li></ul><ul><li>by Cyrus Felton </li></ul><ul><li>Six Hundred Events in Marlborough and Neighboring Towns </li></ul><ul><li> by Cyrus Felton </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Second Parish Church (Unitarian), Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li>by Edward Farwell Hayward </li></ul>
  145. 155. Bibliography The following resources are available online <ul><li>13 th Mass Website Brad Forbush webmaster </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>John Buczek’s Marlborough History Website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The John Brown Bell by Joan Abshire </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings of the Worcester Disunion Convention </li></ul><ul><li>available at multiple sites </li></ul>
  146. 156. Bibliography The following resources were also used <ul><li>The Business Enterprises and Commercial Development of Harpers Ferry </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Town Area, 1803-1861 </li></ul><ul><li>by Charles W. Snell </li></ul><ul><li>The Marlboro Daily Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>The Marlboro Mirror </li></ul><ul><li>1860 - 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>The John Brown Bell Tower Memorial </li></ul><ul><li>Tenth Anniversary of the Rededication Program, 1978 </li></ul>