Industry vsacademia 20110211

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UCSD Professional Development Class - Choosing between Industry and Academia. Presented by Peter Rose PhD

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Industry vsacademia 20110211

  1. 1. Professional Development Lecture 4 A career in Industry vs. Academia Peter Rose [email_address] Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What differentiates industrial from academic jobs? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do You fit in? </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  3. 3. My Background <ul><li>3-year apprenticeship at Bayer </li></ul><ul><li>Ph.D. at Technical University of Munich in Organic & Computational Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Postdoc at UC Irvine in Theoretical Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Agouron Pharmaceuticals, La Jolla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started as PI on NIH grant, hired 4 postdocs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became Department Head Computational Chem. & Bioinformatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First product launch: Viracept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agouron acquired Alanex Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agouron by Warner-Lambert/Park-Davis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warner-Lambert/Park-Davis acquired by Pfizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pfizer acquired Pharmacia (and others …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific Lead, Protein Data Bank, UCSD </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  4. 4. Drug Discovery & Development Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series http://www.boehringer-ingelheim.com/corporate/research/drug_discovery_process/drug_discovery_process.html Cost ~ $800-900 Million Patent life: 20 years
  5. 5. Industry vs. Academia <ul><li>Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Timescale and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>Work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Career advancements </li></ul><ul><li>Salary & benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech vs. Pharma </li></ul><ul><li>Postdoc: Industry vs. Academia </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  6. 6. 1 – Be your own boss? <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>You choose the company and department – but choices may be limited (currently) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose your boss carefully, if you can! </li></ul><ul><li>Market drives product needs </li></ul><ul><li>You will be assigned to projects </li></ul><ul><li>Overall goal of project most likely set from start </li></ul><ul><li>Few opportunities to pursue side tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by your ideas and research experience </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental research directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to pursue side tracks can lead to new discoveries </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  7. 7. 2 – Funding <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Startups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants (SBIR, STTR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venture capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborations with large companies – milestone payments or royalties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large Pharma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent expiration an issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to bring funding through grants </li></ul><ul><li>University takes a large portion of your grant as overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Research directions may be influenced by funding opportunities </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  8. 8. 3 – Timescale and Change <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term market driven focus </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Fast fail paradigm – proof of concept (Go/No-Go decision) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage gates – portfolio management (decision points) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent change in direction due to competition, regulatory changes, failure in clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganization, Mergers & Acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Longer-term focus </li></ul><ul><li>Grant renewals </li></ul><ul><li>Side projects </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth investigations </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  9. 9. 4 – Product <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Primary product a drug, diagnostic, hardware, software, service </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advancements </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization of processes (faster, cheaper, better quality, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on achieving product success on time </li></ul><ul><li>Unmet clinical need & market size </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on “Block Buster” drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Primary product is publication </li></ul><ul><li>Number of citations </li></ul><ul><li>Novel research - breakthrough discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and training </li></ul><ul><li>Can focus on commercially unattractive projects, i.e. third world diseases </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  10. 10. 5 – Team Work <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary project teams </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop interest and knowledge in other disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Successful project outcome is the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>More individualistic and specialized in a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for tenure, prestige, grants </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer, more selective collaborations </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary Drug Discovery Example Biological Aspects Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series Biological Target (enzyme, receptor, transporter) Binding affinity Selectivity Cell Permeability Active/ Passive Transport Protein Binding Absorption Distribution Metabolism Toxicity Efficacy Dose Animal Model Drug-Drug Interactions Excretion Bioavailability Cytotoxicity Cell-based assays
  12. 12. 6 – Work Environment <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>More structured </li></ul><ul><li>Core working hours </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with peers from many disciplines and age groups </li></ul><ul><li>Regular project meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure streamlined to do your work </li></ul><ul><li>Various service departments help with purchasing, IT, instrumentation, facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate work </li></ul><ul><li>Professional project management </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting and performance evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with students, postdocs, researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Need to build your own infrastructure to a large extend, but you have more choices (equipment, computers) </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  13. 13. 7 – Information Sharing <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Patents, trade secrets, non-disclosure agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to operate </li></ul><ul><li>All public disclosures need to be approved by Legal Department </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot show chemical structures or other proprietary information unless patented and approved by Legal. </li></ul><ul><li>May need to use surrogate data in publications </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Free access to data </li></ul><ul><li>Open access literature </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Publish or perish </li></ul><ul><li>Review process </li></ul><ul><li>High impact journals </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  14. 14. 8 – Career Advancements <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Dual career track in larger organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Associate (B.S., M.S.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Scientist (Ph.D.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senior Scientist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principal Scientist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Fellow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associate Director </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Titles are not comparable among companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Before tenure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postdoc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistant professor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After tenure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associate professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean, Department Chair, … </li></ul></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  15. 15. 9 – Salary & Benefits <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Good salary and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>401K match </li></ul><ul><li>Stock options </li></ul><ul><li>Travel & conference - business-essential </li></ul><ul><li>Training courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Salary ok after tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for consulting work </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCSD CONNECT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequent travel & conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sabbaticals </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  16. 16. 10 – Biotech vs. Large Pharma <ul><li>Biotech </li></ul><ul><li>R & (D in collaboration) </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All eggs in one basket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of expertise and resources in some areas of drug discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become the leader in your area of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting edge science and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharma </li></ul><ul><li>R & D, L & D (licensing & development) </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow decision making , committees, rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success-rate of clinical trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations: FDA, MediCare, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merger & acquisitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganization & downsizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are available to do your job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers within company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and management track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher salary and better benefits </li></ul></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  17. 17. Postdoc <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Apply your current research expertise to a problem in drug discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Might be a good choice if you are unsure about your career path </li></ul><ul><li>May lead to a permanent job </li></ul><ul><li>Does the company have a postdoc program? </li></ul><ul><li>How much independent research can you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you publish your results? </li></ul><ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a research topic that is different/complementary to your Ph.D. research, i.e. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology <-> Structural Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genomics <-> Proteomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental <-> Computational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take risks – explore cutting edge research </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunities for industrial and academic careers </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series Network (i.e. LinkedIn) with former or current postdocs, read their publications.
  18. 18. Where do You fit in? <ul><li>Are you passionate about your research? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your area of expertise? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you like to work as part of a team? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you prefer hands-on research over writing papers? </li></ul><ul><li>How much time do you want to dedicate to your job? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is a flexible schedule to you? </li></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  19. 19. Types of Industrial Research/Careers <ul><li>Small Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Biologics </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property/patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business development & strategic alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific writing </li></ul></ul>Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series
  20. 20. Feb 11, 2011 Professional Development Series Discussion/Questions? Further reading: Searls DB, 2009 Ten Simple Rules for Choosing between Industry and Academia. PLoS Comput Biol 5(6): e1000388.

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