The Focus Psychologists focus on: Factors that are unique to the individual On personal / unique experiences that influence how an individual will act and think.
Br anches of Psycholog y: Clinical psychology - develops programs for treating individuals suffering from mental illnesses and / or behavioural disorders.
Research Psychologists Use a variety of methods in their studies: Conduct experiments Create long term studies Organize surveys Engage in reviews of scholarly literature
Experimental psycholog y Set up experiments to see how individuals act in particular situations in order to identify the normal range of human behaviour and the reasons for them.
Psychological Research Much involves the strong link between people’s attitudes (what they think) and their behaviours (what they do). Do you need to change people’s attitudes before you can change their behaviour? THIS IS A MAJOR CHALLENGE
Cognitive ConsistencySocial psychologists havediscovered that mostindividuals desire this The desire to avoid attitudes that conflict with each other.We tend to live moresatisfying lives when wedo.
Changing Our MindsWhat makes uschange ourattitudes is thediscomfort that weexperience whentwo attitudesconflict.
CognitiveDissonance TheoryThe most favouredtheory of attitudechange.States that people tryto avoid conflictsbetween what theythink and what theydo.
Psychology and Social Change Behaviour Modification Theory• States we must move through a number of stages before we can successfully change.• Psychologists who study BM attempt to determine methods that can successfully change or modify human behaviour. – Of special importance for psychologists who work with criminals.• Think “The Fun Theory”
Behaviour Modification Theory • “The Stages of Change” model is typical of the behaviour modification theory:Stage CharacteristicsPrecontemplation Denial and refusalContemplation QuestioningPreparation InvestigationAction CommitmentMaintenance (begins about six months after Transitionaction stage begins)Termination Completion
Behaviour Modification Theory• Overall psychologists have concluded that positive reinforcement is a more effective method of modifying behaviour than negative reinforcement or punishment. Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning