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Coastal pollution.ppt 2


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Marine pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries), resulting in such deleterious effects as: harm to living resources; hazards to human health; hindrance to marine activities including fishing; impairing the quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities

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Coastal pollution.ppt 2

  1. 1. Coastal Pollution S.MUTHUSAMY M.phil, Applied Geology, Madras University Guindy campus Chennai-25 Presented by, Submitted to: Dr. R.R.KRISHANAMURTHY, READER, Department of Applied Geology, Madras university Guindy Campus Chennai-25
  2. 2. The Inter-Governmental Oceanographic Commission, an international agency (within UNESCO) for ocean research and related matters, defines : ‘ marine pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries), resulting in such deleterious effects as: harm to living resources; hazards to human health; hindrance to marine activities including fishing; impairing the quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities’. Coastal Pollution?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Coastal Waters are in Trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution in coastal waters is bad in many areas, it is getting worse, and more and more areas are affected. </li></ul><ul><li>According to A National Strategy to Restore Coastal and Estuarine Habitat: 95% of San Francisco Bay's original wetlands have been destroyed. 85% of Galveston Bay's sea grass meadows are gone. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 30% of Connecticut's coastal wetlands have been lost. 25 square miles of coastal Louisiana wetlands disappear each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Oyster harvests in Chesapeake Bay plummeted from 25 million pounds to one million pounds in just 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of wild salmon returning to Maine's rivers has dropped 80% in the last ten years. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Bacteria and viruses (pathogens). 2. Oxygen-depleting substances such as sewage, other carbon-based waste, and dissolved carbon-based material, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Toxic substances such as: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Heavy metals, especially in carbon-based compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Arsenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Cadmium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Cobalt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F. Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Nutrients (nitrates, phosphates), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Hot water discharge from power plants, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Alien species, such as the European Green Crab and the aquatic weed Carcinus maenas on the US west coast, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Trash, including plastic rings used to hold 6-packs of cold drinks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Noise, especially noise that interferes with marine mammals and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other animals communications and hearing. </li></ul></ul>Types of Coastal Pollution.
  5. 5. <ul><li>It may be concentrated by marine animals such as shellfish, and eating polluted </li></ul><ul><li>shellfish causes illness. Animals at the top of the food chain, such as tuna, </li></ul><ul><li>have the greatest concentrations. Note it is the concentration of the pollutant that is </li></ul><ul><li>important, not the total amount in the animal. Phytoplankton have small concentrations, </li></ul><ul><li>predators can have much higher concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>It may kill off a thriving tourist business in a coastal region. </li></ul><ul><li>It may kill marine life, e.g. birds caught in plastic rings used to hold 6-packs </li></ul><ul><li>of cold drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>Large quantities of nutrients and carbon-based waste leads to plankton blooms. </li></ul><ul><li>When the plants die, they sink to the bottom, decay, and reduce the oxygen in deeper </li></ul><ul><li>waters, e.g. the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia (dead) Zone caused by Mississippi River runoff. </li></ul>Pollution has many consequences.
  6. 6. Source of pollution. Pollution sources are classified as point sources or non-point sources by the US Environmental Protection Agency.
  7. 9. What is Non-point Source Pollution? Today, non-point source pollution — polluted runoff entering waterways from diffuse land-based activities — is the leading cause of water quality degradation to coastal waters (Pew, 2003). Non-point source pollution includes runoff from agricultural and forestry land, storm water runoff from urban areas and discharges from on-site sewage disposal systems (such as septic tanks). As rain water or snow melt washes over the land, it picks up pollutants (e.g., sediments, nutrients, organic matter, bacteria, oils, metals and other toxic chemicals) and transports them to coastal creeks, rivers, bays and estuaries.
  8. 10. Impacts of Non-point Source Pollution Polluted runoff can have both ecological and human health impacts. Increases in polluted runoff have been linked to a loss of aquatic species diversity and abundance, including many important commercial and recreational fish species. Non-point source pollution has also contributed to coral reef degradation, fish kills, sea grass bed declines and algal blooms (including toxic algae). In addition, many shellfish bed and swimming beach closures can be attributed to polluted runoff.
  9. 11. Non-point source pollution, or polluted runoff, is the greatest threat to coastal waters. Note the darker, murky water flowing from the developed area at the lower right. The Coastal Non-point Pollution Control Program establishes management measures to address non-point source pollution from a variety of sources, include agricultural activities.
  10. 12. Point sources include sewer out-falls, concentrated animal feeding operations, sanitary sewer overflows, storm water, oil spills, industrial discharges; discharge from boats, and dumping of ballast water from ships.
  11. 13. Point Sources. This drainage outlet delivering polluted runoff into the Ohio River is a point source of pollution because the pollution originates from a single, identifiable source.
  12. 14. The Maltese tanker ERIKA, carrying some 31,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil as cargo, broke in two in a severe storm in the Bay of Biscay on 11 December 1999, 60 miles from the coast of Brittany. About 20,000 tonnes of oil were spilled. The bow sank on 12 December and the stern on the following day.
  13. 15. December 7 2007, South Korea: A 146,000-ton Hong Kong registered supertanker collided with a barge about seven miles off Mallipo beach causing what is said to be South Korea's biggest oil spill in more than a decade
  14. 16. In Lake Roosevelt, the biggest source of point source pollution has been from smelter, fertilizer, and pulp operations upstream in Canada. Although these sources were contained in the early 1990s, their waste still remains in Lake Roosevelt’s sediments. Port of Houston, Texas. Researchers recently found unexpectedly high levels of nitryl chloride, a chemical long suspected to be involved in ground-level ozone production, in busy shipping areas along the southeastern coast of the United States
  15. 17. <ul><li>An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of </li></ul><ul><li>algae in an aquatic system. </li></ul><ul><li>Algal blooms may occur in freshwater as well as marine environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically only one or a few phytoplankton species are involved, and some blooms may be </li></ul><ul><li>recognized by discoloration of the water resulting from the high density of pigmented cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there is no officially recognized threshold level, algae can be considered to be </li></ul><ul><li>blooming at concentrations of hundreds to thousands of cells per milliliter, depending on </li></ul><ul><li>the severity. Algal bloom concentrations may reach millions of cells per milliliter. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors observed are green, yellowish-brown, or red. Bright green blooms may also occur. </li></ul><ul><li>These are a result of blue-green algae, which are actually bacteria (cyanobacteria). </li></ul><ul><li>Blooms may also consist of macro algal, not phytoplankton, species; these blooms are </li></ul><ul><li>recognizable by large blades of algae that may wash up onto the shoreline. </li></ul>ALGAL BLOOM
  16. 18. Aerial photo of 1999 algae bloom in the James River arm of Table Rock Lake (Missouri DNR photo)
  17. 19. Satellite image of a large coccolithophore bloom in the Bering Sea in 1998. Toxic Algae Bloom off Washington
  18. 20. People wade through blue-green algae at Qingdao, the host city for sailing events at the 2008 Olympic Games, in eastern China's Shandong province.
  19. 21. Red tide is an estuarine or marine algal bloom [a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system] and is caused by a species of dinoflagellates, often present in sufficient numbers (thousands or millions of cells per milliliter) to turn the water red or brown.
  20. 22. The type and quantum of pollutants into the coastal ecosystem in India <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.Sediments1600 million tonnes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.Industrial effluents50 x 106m3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.Sewage - largely untreated0.41 x 109m3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.Garbage and other solids34 x 106 tonnes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.Fertilizer - residue5 x 106 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6.Synthetic detergents - residue1,30,000 tonnes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.Pesticides - residue65, 000 tonnes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8.Petroleum hydrocarbons (Tar balls residue)3,500 tonnes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9.Mining rejects, dredged spoils & sand extractions0.2 x 106tonnes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Pollution on Indian Coasts <ul><li>The Arabian Sea is a major oil tankers route to South East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Gujarat - Industries manufacture bulk chemicals, dyes, pharmaceuticals and phosphorus pesticides - and discharge over 200 MLD of effluents which are acidic, oxygen depleted and sediment laden. The effluents contain heavy metals, phenols, nitrogen and phosphorous. This has affected the water quality of the Narmada, Tapti and Mahi rivers. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Mumbai and around <ul><li>The river Kalu, north of Mumbai, flowing through the industrial towns of Ambarnath, Ulhasnagar and Kalyan has a mercury concentration exceeding 100 ppm. </li></ul><ul><li>Thana creek in Mumbai receives effluents of over 50 MLD where high mercury levels are present in the water, sediments and living organisms. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Calcutta <ul><li>The Hoogly river carry effluents that have contaminated fish and shell fish with heavy metals such as Ni, Cu, Cd and Zn. </li></ul><ul><li>The sediments near Haldia have upto 10 ug/g of pesticides. These river waters are contaminated by e-coli, shigella, salmonella and other human pathogens - indication of severe sewage contamination. </li></ul>
  24. 26. KOCHI <ul><li>The Periyar river receives chemical industry effluents and untreated sewage. Incidents of ulsuration in shrimp and fish, and frequent fish mortality have affected traditional fishing, with no pollution abatement efforts made. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Goa <ul><li>Estuarine and coastal waters are &quot;clean&quot;, though there is high sediment load from mining activities. The Mandovi-Zuari estuaries receive over 30 MLD of partly treated domestic sewage and 15 MLD of industrial and agricultural effluents. </li></ul><ul><li>The data, to date, indicated that the Indian coasts have well circulated oxygenated waters, and that hot-spots remain contained within reasonable limits. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Chennai <ul><li>The levels of hydrological pollution of Chennai coastal zone in the southeastern part of India have been increased in the recent years by an uncontrolled disposal of wastewater and pollutants due to human activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on detailed examination, four sites including Cuvum estuary, Adyar estuary, Kannikoil and Bharathiyar nagar are identified as highly venerable zones because of receiving a large quantity of municipal and industrial wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce severe pollution levels in these areas it is therefore necessary to design and construct the submarine pipeline system to transport and disperse such a large quantity of waste materials to the deep open ocean areas </li></ul>
  27. 29. THANK YOU