Studying Society : Lecture 3


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These are the slides from my Studying Society course at Durham University's Foundation Centre. This week is all about measuring class and discussing how class divisions are reproduced.

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  • Much more info on this available here‘large organisations’ is over 25 people
  • The large employers and higher managerial occupations group had the highest total wealth(including private pension wealth) in 2006/08, with a mean of £816,800 and a median of £532,500.Half of all households headed by someone who ‘never worked/long term unemployed’ had total wealth (includingprivate pension wealth) of £15,000 or less in 2006/08From “Wealth in GB 2006/8”
  • From report located here
  • Free Life Expectancy
  • Picture credit
  • is first introduction of student fees, discuss impact of current change in model?? Impact on social mobility?
  • Studying Society : Lecture 3

    1. 1. The reproduction of class
    2. 2. OutlineMeasuring classSocial mobilityHealth inequalityRole of education
    3. 3. Measuring Class• Very difficult• Important for administrative reasons• Last week we looked at 3 types of capital • How might you measure each? • What else might be a useful and easy to capture measure of class?
    4. 4. Weber and Class• Focus on status • „market situation‟• Multiple classes • Not all economic• Contrast with Marx• “Mean Girls”
    5. 5. Measuring ClassNational Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC)• Takes employment relations approach • Employer, self employed, employee • Supervisor, supervised • Level of self direction and independence• Labour market situation equates to source of income, economic security and prospects of economic advancement.• Recently changed (2001) to try and incorporate full population (ie students, non working etc.)• Not ordinal (i.e. not a ranking)
    6. 6. National Statistics Socio-economic Classification 1 Higher managerial, administrative and professional occupations 1.1 Large employers and higher managerial and administrative occupations 1.2 Higher professional occupations 2 Lower managerial, administrative and professional occupations 3 Intermediate occupations 4 Small employers and own account workers 5 Lower supervisory and technical occupations 6 Semi-routine occupations 7 Routine occupations 8 Never worked and long-term unemployed
    7. 7. Distribution of wealth by class Household wealth including pension wealth Large employers and higher managerial Higher professional Lower managerial and professional Intermediate occupationsSmall employers and own account workers Lower supervisory and technical Semi-routine occupations Routine occupations Mean Median Never worked/long term unemployed 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 0
    8. 8. Social Mobility“Social mobility refers to the movement of people up or down the social class hierarchy” (Browne)• Intra-generational – This is the extent to which somebody changes class within their lifetime • [e.g. Cheryl Cole]• Inter-generational – This is the extent to which offspring have changed status compared to their parents‟ class • [e.g. Margaret Thatcher „grocer‟s daughter‟]
    9. 9. Health InequalityAge-standardised mortality rate: men aged 25-64,2001-3
    10. 10. DFLE for males and femalesat birth 2005-8 Male Female1 – Least deprived 69.3 70.32 66.6 68.53 65.1 65.94 62.1 63.45 – Most deprived 54.7 57.9
    11. 11. Why?In groups think of as many reasons as you can to explain health inequalities• Think about economic, social and cultural capital• + material differences• Differences in employment• Differences in neighbourhood
    12. 12. break
    13. 13. EducationWhy have state education at all?• More skilled workforce• Improve effectiveness of armies• Re-socialise the wasteful poor• Reduce the level of street crime• Reduce threat of revolution• Human right
    14. 14. Functionalist view ofeducationThe education system has three functions1. Socialisation – Values, norms2. Skills provision – Literacy, numeracy, I.T.?3. Role allocation – Identify and reward talent
    15. 15. school as a factory
    16. 16. Marxist views on education• Legitimate capitalist values as common values • Private property • Accept the current order• Creates conformist working class • Uniform • Punctual • Obedient• “Learning to Labour” – Willis • Ethnographic account of „earoles‟ and „lads‟ • Rejection of dominant values, prepares „lads‟ for working class world of boring alienated labour
    17. 17. Attainment of at least 5 A*-C GCSEs908070605040302010 0 Higher professional Lower professional Intermediate Lower supervisory Routine Other
    18. 18. Education Inequality (Class inHE) 60 50 Non- manual 40 30 20 Manual 10 0 1991/92 1993/94 1995/96 1997/98 1999/2000 2001/02
    19. 19. Why?Think of possible reasons for this gap in attainment• Economic capital• Social capital• Cultural capital• Other factors
    20. 20. Explanations • Economic capital • Housing • Health/ diet • Lack of books/computer/ trips • Lack of support to stay on • Work during school • Catchment areas • Social/ Cultural • Parental attitudes (about education and school) • Parental level of education • Language use (restricted/ elaborated) • School factors • Labelling • Teachers‟ attitudes • Anti-school subculture (Willis)
    21. 21. Who gets the best jobs?BBC documentaryWhat are other barriers to social mobility?Why does social mobility matter?
    22. 22. How does the use of internshelp reproduce social class?
    23. 23. SummaryProblems with measuring classWeber and social classNational Statistics measuresClass and educationClass and healthReproduction of class