TIRP Planning/Pacing 4/21/12 Barbara A. ToneyObjectives: By the end of the classteachers will be able to1. create a lesson plan calendar for thecoming year.2. ballpark time needed for variousunits3. Create and pace a lesson plan4. Create a lesson plan including brain-based principles
Your 1stYear is Almost Over!What Did You Learn?• You survived!• Improved classroom management• Created and given tests*• Dealt with Parents• Lesson Planning• Worked with peers and administrators• Increased student achievement*
• Handling stress• Balancing home and school*• Created a system for reaching kids• Rules and Routines*• Own Grading and assessment system.• Differentiation of lessons• Teaching material in different ways• Task Analysis*• Flexibility
• Today we will be:• 1. Creating a lesson plan calendar: Your textbook has 20 chapters, each of which carriesequal weight. Determine roughly how muchtime you can spend on each chapter.• How to start the year: Do you start withcontent lessons the first day?
ACADEMIC YEAR PLANNING• Creating your year-long plan
Unit Planning• 8 1/2 days to cover a unit• What must be included?• 10-24-7• Assessments• What will students learn and be able to do• What will you do daily to create studentengagement?• Final Assessment
What’s Important?• Structure of a lesson plan:• Focus not on what you need to cover but whatstudents will be doing.• Transitions: When are transitions needed? How longwill it take to get in and out of each transition? Test ityourself initially. Assume everything will take youmore time than planned but have sponges available aswell.• Emphasize what’s important: 10/24/7
ASSESSMENTS• Tests: what’s the point of the test? Is it a test based on studying or knowledge? Makit up or adapt using textbook software.• What to do if most students fail or do very poorly on a test?• Determine your culpability and respond accordingly. Reteach and retest if necessaryOffer students an option of retaking if receive C or below.• Utilize testing software that comes with your text. May need to be tweaked and youcan often do that (editing)• Make 2 or 3 versions of a• test- 2 for class and one for makeups.
What this means to you:• It is critical that we plan learning with thebrain in mind to ask a different set ofquestions. Rather than, what should I teach,ask how will students best learn? As you planthe learning, keep the focus on basicprinciples that support the brain’s naturallearning tendencies. Create a complexinterdisciplinary curriculum that provides forplenty of learner choice. Provide structure,but in an environment that represents theunique nature of each learner and theirindividual needs and experiences.
• Lesson Pacing:How much time is spent on different parts:• Intro to lesson• Transitions• Giving Directions• Delivering the day’s content and activities• Answering questions• Asking Questions• Practice work• DisciplineIncluding Jensen brain elements
The 7 Stage Brain BasedLearning Lesson PlanningOutline
The process• The following strategies are organized in a sequenceas outlined by Jensen that makes sense to the brain.The list is by no means exhaustive. Use this outlineas a means to check against your lesson plans tomake sure that you have set appropriate goals foreach of the learning stages.
Stage 1: Pre Exposure• This phase provides thebrain with an overview ofthe new learning beforereally digging into theconcept. Pre exposurehelps the brain developbetter conceptual maps.• Ideas of this stage:– Post an overview of the newtopic on the bulletin board.– Encourage good nutrition anddrinking plenty of water.– Start here student knowledgebase begins and build upon theirinterests related to the concept.– Have learners set their own goalsand discuss goals for the class aswell.– Plan Brain wake-ups, such ascross laterals.
Stage 2: Preparation• This is the phase where youcreate the curiosity or theexcitement. It is similar tothe “Anticipatory Set” butgoes farther in preparingthe learner.• Ideas to incorporate:– Create a “you are there”experience.– Elicit from learners what possiblevalue and relevance the topic hasto them personally.– The brain learns very well fromconcrete experiences. Provided areal, physical or concreteexposure for the class.– Provide a hook or surprise or a bitof novelty to engage learneremotions.
Stage 3 – Initiation and Acquisition• This stage provides the immersion. Floodwith content! Instead of the single, lockstep, one bite at a time presentation,provide an initial virtual overload of ideas,details, complexity, and meanings. Allowa sense of temporary overwhelm to occurin learners. This will be followed byanticipation, curiosity, and adetermination to discover meaning foroneself. Over time it all gets sorted outby the learner. It is like the real worldoutside the classroom,• Try these:– Provide concrete learning experiences such ascase studies, experiment, a field trip,interviews, etc.– Provide activities that employ a majority ofthe multiple intelligences.– Offer a group or team project thatencompasses building, finding, exploring, ordesigning.– Attend the theater, put on a skit, produce acommercial, or create a class/schoolnewspaper.– Provide enough choice so that learners havethe opportunity to explore the subject usingtheir preferred learning modality: visual,auditory, kinesthetic, etc.– A well designed computer program or activitycan be very helpful at this stage.
Stage 4: Elaboration• This is the process stage. Itrequires genuine thinking on thepart of the learner. This is thetime to make intellectual sense ofthe learning.• Try these:– Provide and open ended debriefingof the previous activity.– Tie things together so the learningacross disciplines occurs.– Have learners design an evaluationprocedure or rubric for their ownlearning.– Have learners explore the topiconline.– Hold a debate, essay contest orpanel discussion on the topic.– Have students to the teaching insmall groups, as class presenters, inpairs.
Stage 5: Incubation and MemoryEncoding• This phase emphasizes theimportance of down timeand review time. The brainlearns most effectively overtime, not all at once.• Try these:– Provide time for unguidedreflection.– Have learners keep a journalof their learning.– Have learners take a walk inpairs to discuss the learning.– Provide stretching andrelaxation exercises.– Provide a music listening area.– Ask learners to discuss newlearning with their family andfriends.
Stage 6: Verification and ConfidenceCheck• This phase is not just for thebenefit of the teacher.Learners need to confirmtheir learning forthemselves, as well.Learning is bestremembered when thestudent possesses a modelor metaphor regarding thenew concepts or materials.• Try these:– Have learners present theirlearning to others.– Student interviews andevaluate each other.– Students write about whatthey have learned in ajournal, essay, newsarticle, report.– Students demonstratelearning with a project.– Students present a roleplay or skit or theatricalperformance.– Quiz, verbal or written.
Stage 7: Celebration and Integration• In the celebration phase it is criticalto engage emotions. Make it fun,light, and joyful. This step instills theimportant love of learning. It mustnever be missed.• Try these:– Have a class toast with juice.– Provide sharing time, peer sharing,demonstration, acknowledgements.– Play music, hang streamers and blowhorns to celebrate the end of asuccessful unit.– Invite another class, parents, principal,or community guest through videoconferencing to view projects.– Facilitate a class designed andproduced celebration party.– Incorporate the new learning in futurelessons! Never introduce something,then drop it. If it is not importantenough to refer to in the future, don’twaste time on it to begin with.
What this means to you:• It is critical that we plan learning with the brain inmind to ask a different set of questions. Rather than,what should I teach, ask how will students bestlearn? As you plan the learning, keep the focus onbasic principles that support the brain’s naturallearning tendencies. Create a complexinterdisciplinary curriculum that provides for plentyof learner choice. Provide structure, but in anenvironment that represents the unique nature ofeach learner and their individual needs andexperiences.
Time• When somethingis taught can beas important aswhat is taught.
Primacy-Recency EffectWe remember best what weexperience first, and secondbest what comes last. BEM
Primacy-Recency Effect• Prime Time 1• Down time• Prime Time 2• Teach new info whenyou have students’focus.Retention during learning episode02468101214161471013161922252831343740Time in minutesDegreeofRetentionSeries1
Primacy-Recency Effect• New info should betaught in Prime time 1• It is important thatonly correct info bepresented at this time.• The new materialshould be followedwith practice duringdown time.Retention during learning episode02468101214161471013161922252831343740Time in minutesDegreeofRetentionSeries1
Primacy-Recency Effect• Closure should takeplace during primetime 2.• This is the secondmost powerfullearning position & animportant opportunityto determine senseand meaning.Retention during learning episode02468101214161471013161922252831343740Time in minutesDegreeofRetentionSeries1
Retention varies with length of teaching episode• More retention occurswhen lessons are shorter.• A block containing 4 twentyminute lessons will be muchmore productive than onelong lesson.Retention during learning episode02468101214161471013161922252831343740Time in minutesDegreeofRetentionSeries1
Prime Time 1 (First 15 minutes)Mr. X : “Today we’re goingto learn the 3rdcause ofthe Civil War and itsrelevance…. Before that,let me give back somehomework, collect and goover today’s homework,collect the notes from Billand Mary who wereabsent and get themcaught up, takeattendance, readannouncements…”Mr. G: “Today we will learn the 3rdcause of the Civil War and how itrelates to current times. And here isthe 3rdcause.. (cause, examples, howit relates to previous..)
Down-Time (next 15 minutes)• “Here is the 3rdcause…”“Get into your discussion groups anddiscuss this 3rdcause. What aresimilarities and differences comparedto the first two causes…”
Last 15 minutes (Prime Time 2)• “OK, we’ve got only 5minutes to the end of theperiod. You’ve listenedwell so you can do whatyou want quietly until thebell rings.”“Take 2 minutes to review to yourselfwhat we’ve learned about the 3rdcause. Be prepared to share yourthoughts with the class in a moment.”