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  2. 2. WHAT IS A YOUTH? <ul><li>Youth is a bridge between childhood and adulthood. It focuses on the mid teenage years and the early adulthood stages of a person’s life. Youth is a time of great changes including physical, emotional, intellectual and social. As young people move through puberty they must adapt to increasing levels of independence, cope with new types of relationships and adjust to an ever evolving physical self. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT DO THE YOUTH NEED? <ul><li>Access to services </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of identity </li></ul>
  4. 4. ACCESS TO SERVICES <ul><li>Many services are available to the youth. They vary according to the community in which the individual lives, some include; voluntary organisation's that provide emergency help, food, clothing, housing e.g. The Smith Family, Mission Australia, St. Vincent De Paul, crisis help and  referral support groups that provide counselling, e.g. Lifeline, employment and educational organisations e.g. Centrelink, social security organisations that provide financial assistance e.g. Austudy, Youth Allowance, health and fitness programs e.g. gyms and sport centres. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to a lack of knowledge, limited transportation and feeling intimidated, young people find it difficult to access such services. This could result in physical, social, emotional and spiritual not being met, therefore decreasing the individual's wellbeing.  </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Many young people are attending some sort of educational institution (secondary school, TAFE, university etc), the cost of higher school education or lack of support from family members can make it difficult for some students to access further education. </li></ul><ul><li>Young individuals who do not receive an education may find it hard to get employed, decreasing the individuals SES, their health may decrease because the individual isn’t aware of some health issues, they may develop a low self esteem because of this and ultimately decrease their socioemotional, physical and economical wellbeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Youth allowance is an income support payment that assists young people while they are studying, looking for work, completing an approved training course or are sick. Educational resources are available to all young individuals. </li></ul>EDUCATION
  6. 6. HEALTH <ul><li>Young people are particularly vulnerable to some of the ill effects of modern society. Some health concerns of the youth are; medically related such as asthma, sexual issues such as unwanted pregnancies, risk taking behaviours such as speeding and mental or emotional problems such as depression. </li></ul><ul><li>The most worrying trend for this age group is the increasing rate of suicides particularly in young Australian males. The male rate of suicide remains around four times higher than that of females, however females have higher rates of hospitalisation for suicide and self-harm attempts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SELF ESTEEM <ul><li>It is vital for the youth to feel good about themselves. The family is a major contributor to an individual's level of self esteem. Parents need to give praise and encouragement for their children to reach their full potential. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Sam came first in an English assessment, her parents acknowledged her achievement and bought her a new CD that she really wanted. Sam's socioemotional wellbeing would increase in this situation as she is being praised for her good efforts, her overall wellbeing will also increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Many young people suffer from low self esteem and depression because of issues such as unemployment, poor self image, peer pressure and relationship problems. For example, Lisa has been in an intimate relationship with Chad for seven months, he is pressuring her into having sexual intercourse but she doesn't think she is ready. He wont listen to her, and yells at her when she disagrees with him. This situation would decrease Lisa's socioemotional and spiritual wellbeing, because her values aren't being respected and she isn’t being respected as an individual. </li></ul>
  8. 8. SENSE OF IDENTITY <ul><li>Young people gradually move away from parental influence and rely more on peer approval and acceptance. Youth begin to develop their personal and sexual identity and need a supportive and trusting environment. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, If a young male discovered that he was a homosexual, and told his parents, and his parents yelled and dis regarded him as a son because of his decision, this would obviously lower the males sense of identity and self esteem, decreasing his wellbeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Some members of society perceive the young as lazy, irresponsible and careless. This can cause young people to be confused about themselves and their identity. </li></ul><ul><li>The young need a sense of purpose and need to feel like they are contributing members of society. Being a part of organisations such as Greenpeace and youth groups can help to develop this sense of productiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Being respected and appreciated by family members can also contribute to a better sense of self worth. Positive future prospects can inspire the young to achieve their potential in the future. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factors affecting youth <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity/culture </li></ul>
  10. 10. AGE <ul><li>The youth population can be referred to as young people aged twelve to twenty four years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Because youth starts at a young age, these individuals at a younger age may find it hard to gain access to services by themselves without parental consent, however those of the older youth ages have the advantage of doing so. Although age may be seen as a disadvantage it can still be seen as an advantage, as there are a wide variety of service available for youth that older age groups may not be eligible to access. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual is legally obligated to attend school till the age of fifteen, then they are able to leave and find a job, apprentiship etc that are widely available to youth members of the community. </li></ul><ul><li>If an incident occurs and you have to leave home, your age affect many things like not being able to find a place to stay like a hotel etc. and finding financial support through jobs or government funding may be difficult to come by. </li></ul><ul><li>During youth is the time for the majority of emotional and physical change that will take place to ready you for adulthood, therefore your self esteem and sense of identity may change rapidly both increasing and decreasing frequently, which makes it difficult to establish who you are as an individual and may be confusing for someone going through this stage. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DISABILITY <ul><li>A disability is the lack of adequate power, strength, or physical or mental ability; incapacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Disability may involve physical impairment such as sensory impairment, cognitive or intellectual impairment, mental disorder (also known as psychiatric or psychosocial disability), or various types of chronic disease. A disability may occur during a person's lifetime or may be present from birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a disability can prevent an individual in accessing certain facilities (doctors, emergencies, bathrooms) if they do not have anyone with them to help in daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>May prevent you from learning the same as other people, may take longer for you to grasp concepts that are easier for other people </li></ul><ul><li>Having a disability may make an individual doubt themselves and stress them out of the disability if physical however mentally they are smart and prevents them form sporting events, therefore could lead to low self esteem and result in depression as they see themselves as different from other people instead of trying to accept and immerse into the crowd. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of identity may confusing and uncertain. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra facilities like ramps, tutors, home care, specialized bathing facilities etc may be needed to suit particular needs </li></ul><ul><li>Financial support may become difficult for the family as disabilities can become very expensive for the extra help and facilities needed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. EDUCATION <ul><li>Education is compulsory until the age of 15. this may be seen as a factor that stands in the way of youth being able to leave and get a job, weather it be because they have to support for their family or because the idea of money becomes more appealing. </li></ul><ul><li>Education is important in a youth’s life as it provides them with guidance and knowledge to further their skills in finding a job or moving onto uni or tafe after high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a higher education and completing your HSC will allow you to be eligible to access more services compared to someone who did not and does have the qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Education can provide the youth with information not only about school work, but also make them aware of services and facilities outside school (clubs, sports etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Education and attending school will also aid in your social and emotional wellbeing as it allows for interaction with friends and a sense of belonging. </li></ul><ul><li>The right education can make us aware of health and security risks e.g. smoking, alcohol, first aid, etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. GENDER <ul><li>women/girls are much more discriminated against. </li></ul><ul><li>Females are more open and are more willing to express their feelings, therefore being able to explore their sense of identity and self esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Females are more insecure, yet are more willing to well at educational opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more money oriented and tend to leave school earlier then females. </li></ul><ul><li>The health of men are much of risk takers therefore the injury rate amongst the youth are male related incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Females are more mature and are usually the ones develop independency before males do. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more confined and would rather take pain instead of seeing a doctor or specialist in reference to health issues. </li></ul>
  14. 14. LOCATION <ul><li>Youth is an important stage in an individuals life as it helps develop and mold them for adulthood. Living in a remote location can mean making it difficult to make friends and obtain schooling like normal children, this therefore can decrease an individuals social, emotional and to a degree physical wellbeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding employment can be much more difficult to obtain when living in remote area. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing facilities, both sporting and health are difficult, and because of the remoteness can cause a burden on financial issues as it can be costly for transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Youth may not be aware of the opportunities that are available to them when n not being surrounded in such a environment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS <ul><li>If you have low socioeconomic status and you are an individual who is a youth, then it is more difficult to find financial support and optimal education. These can affect a person wellbeing in various ways. The lack of status can cause low self esteem which affects emotional wellbeing. This can be cause by school kids opinions or the sense that you are not good enough. </li></ul><ul><li>High socioeconomic status enables someone to have more access to services, facilities like private schools, hospitals, specialists etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Being of high socioeconomic status can have a positive influence on wellbeing both physical, emotional and social. </li></ul><ul><li>Youth people who are still in school see socioeconomic status as a high priority and often determine where you stand in the social hierarchy at school. This can both have a negative and positive affect on wellbeing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. ETHNICITY/CULTURE <ul><li>A youth who is of a different cultural background may find it hard to adjust to a different cultural experience. Their culture may affect their beliefs and therefore may conflict with others opinions. They may find it difficult to obtain education in Australia based on their background. </li></ul><ul><li>Language can become a barrier, therefore limiting access to employment, education, health and financial services etc. </li></ul><ul><li>discrimination amongst the workforce and at school can affect an individuals wellbeing as they become to feel insecure, uncomfortable and isolated form everyone and everything else. </li></ul><ul><li>The way someone may have been brought up may conflict with someone else's nature, hence conflictions, fights, discrimination etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Being of a different ethnic background can cause confusion and questioning about there sense of identity and who they are and where they fit, this is also common amongst most youth’s. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Justification of 3-4 main factors; <ul><li>AGE </li></ul><ul><li>DISABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE/ETHNICITY </li></ul>
  18. 18. AGE <ul><li>Age is big factor and a main one because youth is such a broad group and can range from 12 years up till 25. in this group most of the important things that will happen in your life happen within this age bracket. Including: 18 th birthday and having the right to vote, 21 st birthday and officially becoming known and recognized as an adult of the community, getting married, having your first child, completing high school and Uni, obtaining a job in your chosen career path, moving out and becoming independent etc. each of these tings are big steps taken in an individuals life. It also the time where the developing and molding of finding who you are as a person in this world occurs. You loose friends, make friends, go on a rollercoaster of emotion and this is the ages where the majority of it happens. Age is also an important factor as it will also determine your access to services and the extent of it, educational rights, etc. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disability <ul><li>Approx nine per cent of Australian young people have a disability </li></ul><ul><li>Injury is leading cause of death of young people in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence and youth is the time where most people take risks in their life, both dangerous and smart risk's a lot of the risks taken have resulted in accidents and a breach of your health. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx twenty per cent of young Australians have a mental health problem which affects their ability to undertake their usual activities such as attending school, working and socializing. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the high percentage of youth’s who suffer from a disability it is important to know how much having a disability can affect your access to services and how much it can affect your wellbeing. Having the right knowledge and education of knowing how to prevent disabilities may decrease the number of youth’s who have them in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a disability may be a negative thing, but it does not have to be, as there are services, people, councilors, specialists, professionalists that are available to talk to and see. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a disability may limit some aspects of life, but that does not mean that you cannot succeed in something else. E.g. sporting events for people with disabilities, education and gaining high marks and success can be achievable as there are people to aid in such things etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Culture/ethnicity <ul><li>Australia is a multicultural country, therefore meaning that there are usually someone who is of a different ethnic background at ever school. Because of this culture is big part of the youth population. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence is an important stage in a person’s life, as it is the time for growth, maturing and searching for your place in the world/community/school etc. on top of that being of a different cultural background can make that much harder to deal with. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that we known that many people are disadvantaged at many things, like employment, education, health facilities etc just because of their background. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination often occurs that becomes the barrier for a lot of people especially youth at gaining friends, good education, social life, high self esteem etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of background of particular difficult for youth’s as the surrounding society that they live in challenges and questions it. </li></ul>
  21. 21. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE #1 Cyber bully wanted victim killed By Evelyn Yamine August 29, 2008 12:00am A TEENAGER is under investigation over alleged death threats made against another teenager on the internet. Detectives said a group had been formed on the MySpace website which threatened and intimidated a 17-year-old youth from Tweed Heads. It is also alleged the author of the website forum was encouraging people to kill and bash the alleged victim. Have you been the victim of cyber bullying? Tell us below Police were alerted to the cyber bullying on Wednesday and spoke to a 16-year-old from nearby Banora Point. The youth was released yesterday without any charges being laid but police said their investigation was continuing. The site containing the alleged threats has since been pulled down. &quot;Any sort of bullying, whether it be in the playground or over a computer, is not acceptable and we take these matters very seriously,&quot; Detective Senior Constable Tim Young from Tweed/Byron local area command said.   &quot;Victims of bullying should not suffer in silence. I urge all victims to tell your teachers, tell your parents or to contact police,&quot; he said.   This newspaper article is an example of the numerous cases of cyber-bullying happening to teenagers. It is clear that constant abuse will deteriorate the youths self esteem and sense of identity.
  22. 22. NEWSPAPE ARTICLE #2 Teens say no to sex and drugs By Andrew Chesterton December 09, 2007 12:00am KIDS are turning away from marijuana and more of them are abstaining from sex as today's youth become more conservative. Previously unreleased data from the State Government's biennial YouthSCAN report has revealed the number of people aged between 10 and 17 who smoke marijuana has fallen from 36 per cent in 2003 to 23 per cent in 2007. The report, compiled after three-hour interviews with 600 young people across NSW and Victoria, found nicotine use had also dropped slightly. Just 37 per cent of young people reported smoking cigarettes, compared to 38 per cent of those surveyed in 2003. The report reveals young people are also waiting longer before they have sex. Less than two-thirds of sexually active young people reported having sex before they were 16, compared with more than three-quarters of youths questioned in the previous survey. Members of the NSW Youth Advisory Council - staffed by young people and founded to advise the State Government on youth policy - said high-school students were becoming more aware of the dangers of drugs and more empowered to say no. &quot;Young people are just so aware now,'' said council member Samantha Dawson, 20. &quot;You can say, without doubt, young people are more mature, more aware and definitely more educated, whether that education has come from a school, or from parents, about drugs.'' Ms Dawson said better education about sexual relationships removed the pressure some young people felt to have sex. &quot;The thing young people do now is to discuss these things with people,'' she said. &quot;Then they can make informed decisions on whether they are ready.'' NSW Minister for Youth, Linda Burney, said young people in NSW had successfully overcome peer and commercial pressure and were making their own decision on the issues of drugs and sex. &quot;Since becoming Minister for Youth I have come into contact with so many young people, and I've been very impressed,'' she said. &quot;I think young people today have more pressure on them than any past generation. &quot;So I'm really pleased with these results, and I'm very proud of young people across the State.'' The YouthSCAN report also found young people measured success by material possessions. For 19 per cent of young people, money is more important than character when measuring success. This article is evidence that through increased education and awareness of sex and drug taking, adolescents have become more knowledgeable. Adolescents are more aware of the dangers of drug taking and early sexual activity, this then ensures that they are not endangering their health or sense of identity and self esteem.
  23. 23. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE #3 <ul><li>BLACK DOG STALKS TODAY’S TEENS </li></ul><ul><li>-Elle Halliwell. </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSION is the common cold for today's teens and they rely on friends, rather than parents, for guidance, a leading psychologist has warned. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Michael Carr-Gregg said a survey of 1200 teenage girls had revealed three-quarters were more comfortable discussing their problems with peers, and parents were creating a generation of spiritual and moral anorexics. </li></ul><ul><li>The poll, commissioned by Girlfriend magazine, also revealed that most girls were inspired by music and friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Carr-Gregg said parents were providing basic care but were failing to instil good values and provide supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Parents are too time-poor. They're what I call Tamagotchi parents,'' he said, referring to the digital key-chain pets popular in the late 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We need to make sure parents articulate their views and values, and monitor and supervise their children. You can't parent from a mobile phone.'' </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Louise Newman, professor of psychiatry at Newcastle University, agreed that parents could not simply wait for their children to divulge all their problems. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Parents need to be concerned if there are significant changes in a young person's behaviour, particularly if they become unhappy, withdrawn or don't engage in their usual activities,'' she said. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;If a young person is distressed, they may tell their parents, but unfortunately some people don't always do that. I guess that's part of being that age and wanting to tell other people things.'' </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Newman said parents needed to be aware of their children's day-to-day movements if they wanted to stop any mental health problems from escalating. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Having a sense of where that young person is, who they're seeing, who their friends are, what they're getting up to, without being intrusive, is very helpful.'' </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Carr-Gregg said one in four teenagers now suffered from a mental-health issue, compared with one in six in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The main one is depression, which is known as the common cold of adolescent psychiatry, followed by anxiety, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and suicidal behaviour,'' he said. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Carr-Gregg blamed a growing tribal culture among teens and a lack of parental guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Because of the lack of input by parents, young people have turned to their mates,'' he said. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Never before have we seen such a tribal generation of young women; you've got the blind leading the terminally blind.'' </li></ul><ul><li>Most young girls lacked the wisdom and experience to give their friends sound advice if they had serious problems, he said. </li></ul><ul><li>Emily Demasi, 14, of Normanhurst, said talking to friends often helped reduce her stress and she would often turn to a close friend for advice if she had a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We'll chat and make each other laugh, which I think is really important. Me and my friends are pretty relaxed,'' Emily said. </li></ul>This article speaks of teenagers relying more on their peers to go to for advice and help with personal problems instead of confronting and confiding in their parents. This has been said to be a cause of mental health problems, most common being depression, eating disorders etc. also parents are not being as involved in their teens lives as they should, the neglection and rejection can be a major cause to why they do not come to them etc. talks of how almost every aspect of wellbeing is being affected by it.